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THE PALAZZO PITTI*, OR DUCAL PALACE, so that, while, at Paris, every body has to walk on

FLORENCE.

the carriage-road, at Florence, all the carriages seem to be on the footpath. Here the carriages of the gentry are numerous, and often splendid, even rivalling those in London: they are chiefly brought from Milan, a place noted for their manufacture.

The vast and massive style in which the old man

OUR engraving represents the Palace of Leopold, Grand Duke of Tuscany, situated in the great square of Florence, a point of much attraction to strangers visiting that celebrated city. It is a good specimen of the architecture of Florence, where the buildingssions of Florence are built, has been followed in more are ancient and lofty, while its spacious palaces, the remnant of flourishing periods, are of a stern and sombre appearance, but look strong in their old age. In the construction of the Ducal Palace, for instance, we can trace, throughout, uncommon solidity, and a plentiful use of rich materials, but an utter disdain of every thing that is merely ornamental.

FLORENCE (in Italian, Firenze, or Fiorenza,) continues, in many respects, to answer to its name, which signifies The Flourishing. It is situated on both banks of the river Arno, nearly at the head

of the broad and fertile vale which stretches to

modern days, now that there is no longer that need of defence which existed, when feelings of hatred trying to gain the pre-eminence at the expense of and jealousy burned between noble families, each a great neighbour; as if forgetting that one main source of happiness is found in walking through this life as friends, and that the same common dust must soon cover them, and all their boasted pomp.

Four

Arnolfo di Lapo, who flourished in 1290, and died in 1330, was the builder of some of the larger structures now remaining. At a time when Florence led the way as an architect, and to have stamped was at the height of her prosperity, he seems to have upon the city that air of sullen grandeur which it has never lost, and which, at the first glance, fills the mind with wonder. Such heavy and gloomy fabrics are certainly calculated to give a melancholy aspect to the place; but with so many objects of historical and, withal, a cheerful and pretty large population, interest, and so many treasures of art on all sides, Florence is seldom accused of being dull. It has the aspect of a city filled with nobles and their domestics; a city of bridges, churches, and palaces. bridges cross the Arno, of which the Ponte della Trinità, formed of three elliptic arches of white marble, exception, in point of lightness and elegance, to the is one of the most graceful bridges in the world; an The famous Florentine style prevailing around it. Gallery is enriched with statues, busts, and paintof the highest order of art, many of them having been contributed by members of the splendid family of Medici, with whom, indeed, this noble museum had its origin. The building forms three sides of an oblong square. here, or even to attempt a general account of its To go into the details the collection, however, are the statues and busts. contents, would be vain. The principal treasures of

Pisa, and thence to the sea; and the charming
tract of country in which it stands, is called the
Garden of Tuscany. The road along the banks of
the river, between Pisa and Florence, presents a
succession of fine and varied prospects, greatly
depending, however, for their beauty, on the sea-
son; as the Arno, which crosses Florence, is, in
the heat of summer, a shallow and mean-looking
stream, flowing in the midst of a very broad bed,
and is at times fordable; but, when swollen by rains,
or the melting of the snow on the mountains, it
becomes a wide and deep river. In the height of an
Italian summer, also, travelling in the day is often
irksome and fatiguing, on account of the excessive
heat; a circumstance which alone would take away
from the enjoyment of any scenery, however lovely.
FLORENCE is, in form, nearly an oval, and contains
a population of about 80,000 persons. Its delightful
position, sheltered by hills, many of them well culti-ings,
vated, which again are overtopped by the snow-clad
Apennines; the vineyards and olive-grounds in its
neighbourhood; the various gems of art which it
contains, in pictures, statues, monuments, and noble
buildings; the cleanliness of the hotels, and the
mildness and civility of its inhabitants; all these
advantages have obtained for Florence the title of the
"Athens of Italy," and render it an agreeable residence.
The number of foreigners living there is generally
greater than that in any other Italian city, with the
exception of Rome: among these are many English.
It would give us pleasure, did our limits allow us,
to dwell on the amiable points of character which
most travellers agree in assigning to the Florentines:
we mean their gentleness and courtesy to strangers,
as well as their humane and charitable disposition to
the sick and distressed among their people. We
might also touch upon their neat and musical Italian
dialect. But we must return (for the illustration of
dialect. But we must return (for the illustration of
our print) to the city, its architecture, and its
palaces, particularly the Palazzo Pitti, with its lofty
and frowning tower.

Florence is greatly improved since Bishop Burnet's time, when "not one window in ten had any glass in it." But it was then in a low condition, owing to the decay of trade. More attention is now paid, in this, as well as in other towns on the continent, to what we English people call comfort, than was formerly the case; yet still, the streets are in general very narrow, paved with large flag-stones, which are closely fitted to each other, with no line of difference between the foot-way and the carriage-road, and remind an English traveller of broad alleys in London;

The PITTI PALACE, so called after the name of its founder.

This

From this Gallery (which stands on the north bank the south side, where the Grand Duke, as an absoof the Arno,) a bridge leads to the Palazzo Pitti, on lute sovereign, resides, and holds his court. palace, now called Palazzo Ducale, and commonly by the English The PITTI PALACE, is supposed to have been built by Luca Pitti, a Florentine merchant, with the ambitious and foolish design of out-doing in magnificence the Medici family, the objects of his rivalry; but he nearly ruined himself by the expense. It is a rude and simple pile, defective in its masonry, yet having, from its towering height and size, an imposing effect, particularly fronting the

street.

larger than life, including the Hercules by Bandi-
In the space opposite to it are seen statues,
nello, and the David by Michael Angelo. On going
through the palace, the visiter finds that it forms
three sides of a court, which has a fountain on the
fourth; behind this are the admired groves of the
Boboli gardens.
travelled over the continent in search of plants, and
John Ray, the naturalist, who
among other places, visited Florence in 1664, says-
I might spend many words in describing the Grand
Duke's palace, and gardens, stored with great variety of
trees and shrubs, valuable for shade, beauty, fruit, and
scent; adorned with a multitude of statues, thick set up
and down the walks and knots; pleasant fountains and
water-works; stately and delicious walks, both close and
open; goodly flowers and choice plants........ In Florence

many of the palaces are made of great rough-hewn stones, not laid smooth, but projecting above the surface of the wall: which fashion of building is called The Rustic man

ner.

The garden-front of the palace has been much blamed for the strange mixture of its architecture; but, we repeat that bulk and strength were the chief aim in this and other fabrics, joined, however, with much that is noble and elegant. In such palaces, in former days, the rulers, the noble, and the merchant, dined together, surrounded by their family and the adherents of their party; their guests were seated in the order in which they arrived. At the board of Lorenzo the Magnificent, whose court was adorned by the most distinguished men of the age, as well in literature and science, as in rank and wealth, Michael Angelo, and other great artists, were often seated next to himself; and, notwithstanding the occasional feuds which raged between certain great clans, there existed a kindly feeling among the various classes of society, which, although Florence has passed the days of her political and commercial importance, seems still to continue, and to claim the notice of strangers.

The apartments of the Pitti Palace are exceedingly elegant, and contain the best collection of pictures in Florence, we may add, perhaps, in the world. Many of these were carried away by Napoleon Buonaparte, when Italy was overrun by the French armies under his command, but they are now all restored: they are hung in rich frames, on dark green and crimson velvet grounds: the ceilings of the rooms are admirably painted in fresco.

The architect of the palace was Brunelleschi, who flourished in 1420, and at that time became famous for erecting a large and extraordinary dome on the Cathedral of Florence. This dome, or cupola, was the admiration of Michael Angelo, who thought it a triumph of skill; and it is said by some to have furnished the idea of that of St. Peter's, at Rome. It has no columns to assist, no hidden buttresses to shore it up, and is nearly fifty feet higher than the dome of St. Paul's, London. Of all the churches of Florence, the Cathedral is the first in size and ornament.

Almost every family of property in Florence possesses, at some distance from the town, a vineyard, the surplus wine from which is disposed of in a very singular manner. In the walls of their large and noble mansions, are holes large enough to admit a three-quart bottle, and persons, of whatever degree, call at any hour, and, knocking at the porch, thrust in their vessels, with a certain sum of money, which are immediately returned, with a due quantity of wine. This trade is not confined to persons of moderate rank, but is a source of revenue even to counts and

dukes.

THE RUINS OF TYNEMOUTH PRIORY.

IN 120, A.D., the Romans, to protect their possessions in this island from the incursions of the Picts and Scots, built a fortified wall across the narrowest and most northern part of their dominions. This wall ran in a direct line, nearly from sea to sea, through the present counties of Cumberland and Northumberland. The eastern extremity of this fortification terminated at Segedunum, to this day called Wall'send, a station on the northern bank of the Tyne, about four miles from the mouth of the river. The breadth of the river below this point, appears to have been considered by them as sufficient protection for the short remainder of the distance; but at the mouth, on one or both sides, they thought it neces

sary to erect some fortifications. Indistinct traces▸ but of considerable extent, have been found at South Shields, of Roman buildings; stones, with inscriptions upon them, occurring among the monastic ruins of Tynemouth, present a less certain evidence of that people having also resided there. Whether Tynemouth was, or was not, of Roman foundation, it was at a very early date selected as an ecclesiastical site, for which the beauty and peculiarity of its situation well adapted it. A wooden chapel was built there, in A.D. 625, by Edwin, King of Northumberland. No place, perhaps, in the island, was more exposed to the devastations of the Danish pirates. From 625, to 1110, its history is that of alternate destruction and renovation continually repeated. Long subsequent to the Conquest, it was liable to Scottish incursions, and, during the civil wars of the seventeenth century, it was frequently besieged. After that period, when all danger might be supposed to have passed away, its extensive and exquisitely-beautiful ruins, were almost demolished for the sake of their materials.

Much of the priory of Tynemouth, it is probable, was built with the hewn stone from the Roman station at the Law, South Shields; and great part of the town of North Shields, in return, is said, to be built from the ruins of the monastery. Dockwray square in particular, is popularly spoken of, as having been constructed from this source. Nor was this all. Being used as a barrack and military store, the work of demolition and alteration has been gradually continued, down to a late period. The most conspicuous part of the ruin now standing, is the three very beautiful eastern windows of the chapel, represented in the engraving*.

Tynemouth stands upon a promontory of limestone, rising perpendicularly from the sea to a very considerable height. At the eastern extremity of the cliff, are the ruins of the priory, which, from their great elevation, form a very conspicuous sea-mark: adjoining them, is an excellent light-house upon the revolving principle. About an hundred yards west of the monastic ruins, stands the castle, which is now transformed into a plain and unpicturesque building, and fitted up as barracks for the accommodation of a corps of infantry, which, with some artillery, are always stationed there. Beyond the castle, lies the village of Tynemouth, composed chiefly of lodginghouses for the reception of bathers, who flock thither during the summer-months, from all the surrounding neighbourhood, and particularly from Newcastle.

New

The port of Newcastle is an object of some importance in the nautical history of this country. Until within the last few years, nearly all the coal consumed in London was shipped from it. castle on Tyne, lies about ten miles from the mouth of the river, and upon the northern or Northumbrian bank. On the south side, in the county of Durham, but connected with Newcastle by a substantial bridge, is the newly-created borough of Gateshead, where the cholera raged with peculiar virulence, in December, 1831, on its first appearance in this country. The banks of the river, on both sides, are edged by collieries, by pit-rows or colliery-villages, and by staiths, or machines for shipping the coal, when brought from any distance. Wallsend, mentioned before, and Howdon on the north, with Jarrow, formerly the residence of the venerable Bede, Hebburn, and Felling, whence the well-known Newcastle grindstones

We are indebted to Mr. T. M. Richardson, of Newcastle, for the drawing from which this engraving was made (as well as for those of Warkworth castle, already given): and hope shortly to furnish views of other interesting objects in the North of England, from drawings by the same able artist.

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are shipped, on the south, are the principal villages. At the mouth of the river, on the north side, running within half a mile of Tynemouth, on the south side extending to the very edge of the sea, lie the two towns of North and South Shields.

The term Shields, or Sheals, is of frequent occurrence in the north of England, in the names of places, and signifies, a small collection of huts or paltry buildings*. Both these towns are of considerable antiquity, but have only flourished within about a century. South Shields was, as is mentioned above, a Roman station, and probably of no very trifling importance, as the road Wrecken Dyke ran from it. During the middle ages, it appears, however, to have sunk into entire insignificance. From this it emerged, owing to the establishment of the salt-trade, towards the close of the fifteenth century. Salt was long the staple commodity of the place, and Shields salt bears still a preference in the markets. The process by which it was obtained, was by evaporation from salt-water, exposed in shallow vessels termed Pans. Of these pans, not half a dozen are now in use; but at the close of the seventeenth century, one hundred and fifty were in full activity. The town is divided into wards, still called, from these manufactories, East-pan-ward, West-pan-ward, &c. As the salt-trade declined, others rose, which more than compensated for the loss. Glass became a commodity, in the production of which South Shields particularly excelled. Bottle-glass, crown or window-glass †, and latterly, plate-glass, have been made in this town in great quantities. The principal support, however, of the place, has been, and is, its shipping, and those trades principally connected with shipping. The population of the town is about 18,000; the houses are generally mean, though there is a good market-place and some respectable streets leading from it. The right of returning one member to Parliament, was given to it by the bill of 1832. It is in the county and diocese of Durham. There is a large and commoThe word Shielding is still applied in Scotland to such edifices. + See Saturday Magazine, Vol. III. p. 132.

dious church, situated in the market-place; a chapel containing 700 free sittings, was built in 1818, chiefly at the expense of the Dean and Chapter of Durham, who are lords of the manor, and who are now engaged in erecting another chapel.

North Shields is a larger town, containing about 20,000 inhabitants. Not having, however, engaged in trade, it did not become a place of any consequence, previous to the time of Oliver Cromwell, who, by the removal of certain restrictions which had been imposed by the corporation of Newcastle, enabled it to engage successfully in navigation. Its external appearance is much the same as that of South Shields. Like that place, its population is chiefly dependent upon the sea, and upon the various trades which are supported by the shipping. The vessels in which the fuel of the metropolis was conveyed, belonged almost entirely, until within the last few years, to the port of Newcastle; that is, to the towns on the Tyne. Besides collier-brigs, there is also a considerable trade to the Baltic and the Canadas for timber, and several vessels are annually fitted out for the Greenland fishery. During the late war, the ship-owners of this port carried on a very lucrative connexion with government, by hiring out their vessels for the conveyance of troops or stores: this was called the transport-service.

The total present tonnage of the port is 211,148 tons, employing 8444 men; of these, 69,744 tons belong to North Shields, affording, at the average of four men to the hundred tons, employment to 2789 seamen: South Shields, in like manner, furnishes 67,980 tons, and 2719 men.

The sailors from the Tyne will be famous so long as European history is read, as having formed the principal equipment of those fleets, which, under Nelson, St. Vincent, Collingwood, and others, raised the British flag to its proudest elevation. A wreck which took place off the mouth of this river some years ago, was the cause of the invention of the life-boat, a contrivance by which numerous lives are now saved every year on all parts of the British coast; and with a more detailed account

of which we hope soon to present our readers. North Shields has been, since the recent Act, represented by one member. It contains one church, the presentation to which is alternately in the gift of the Duke of Northumberland and of Sir Jacob Astley, who possesses the property of the ancient family of Delaval, of Seaton Delaval.

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instead of that, he never once showed me his books, but kept me to such hard labour, that I was disabled, from being overworked; and when my illness obliged me to leave because I had not completed my half-year's service. In him, he would pay me nothing for my three months' labour, my weak state, I made a wooden watch and clock, and other things, which I took, when I was recovered, to Sir James Dunbar, of Duru, who, I heard, was a good-natured gentleman; he received me very kindly, and by means of this introduction, I was afterwards enabled to go to Edinburgh, and pursue my favourite studies, and also had the pleasure of occasionally supplying the wants of my poor

James Ferguson, whose own account of his early life is here given, became a Member of the Royal Society of London, a celebrated lecturer on Astronomy and Natural Philosophy, and the author of several scientific works. Among the attendants on his lectures was the then Prince of Wales, afterwards George the Third, who settled upon Ferguson a pension of fifty pounds a year. He was a man of plain and unassuming manners, and frugal habits, and at his death, in 1776, was worth six thousand pounds.

EMINENCE FROM HUMBLE LIFE. JAMES FERGUSON, who distinguished himself as mathematician, mechanic, and astronomer, gives the follow-father. ing interesting account of his early life: I was born in the year 1710, a few miles from Keith, a little village in Bamffshire, in the north of Scotland; and can with pleasure say, that my parents, though poor, were religious and onest; lived in good repute with all who knew them, and died with good characters. Though my father had nothing to support a large family but his daily labour, and the profits of a few acres of land which he rented, yet his children were not neglected, for at his leisure hours, he taught them to read and write; and it was while he was teaching my elder brother to read the Catechism, that I acquired my reading. Ashamed to ask my father to instruct me, I used, when alone, to study the lesson which he had been teaching my brother; and in any difficulty, I went to a neighbouring old woman, who gave me such help as enabled me to agreeably surprise my father, when he found me one day reading by myself, before he had thought of teaching me: he, therefore, gave me further instruction, and taught me to write; which, with about three months I afterwards had at the grammar-school at Keith, was all the education I ever received.

My taste for mechanics arose from an odd accident. When about seven or eight years of age, a part of the roof of the house being decayed, my father, in repairing it, applied a prop and lever to an upright spar, to raise it to its former situation; and to my great astonishment, I saw him, without considering the reason, lift up the ponderous roof, as if it had been a small weight. I attributed this at first to a degree of strength that excited my terror as well as wonder; but, thinking further of the matter, I recollected that he had applied his strength to that end of the lever which was farthest from the prop; and finding, on inquiry, that this was the cause of the seeming wonder, I began making levers, (which I then called bars,) and tried different experiments with them, and with wheels, which I made with my father's turning-lathe and a little knife.

But, as my father could not afford to maintain me, while I was in pursuit only of these matters, and I was too young and weak for hard labour, he put me to a neighbour to keep sheep, and then I began to observe the stars by night, fixing their places on a string with small beads on it, and then marking them down on paper. I then went to serve a considerable farmer, whose name was James Glashan; when he saw me, after my work was done, go into a field, with a blanket about me, and lie on my back to observe the stars, he at first laughed at me, but, when I explained my meaning to him, he encouraged me to go on, and that I might make fair copies in the day-time of what I had done in the night, he often worked for me himself, taking the threshing-flail out of my hand, while I sat by him in the barn, busy with my compasses and pen. I shall always have a respect for the memory of that man.

At this time, a gentleman, Thomas Grant, Esq., of Achoynancy, happening to see one of my plans, asked me to go to his house, as his butler could give me a great deal of instruction. I would not leave my good master till my time was out; but I then went to Squire Grant's, where the butler, Alexander Cantley, soon became my friend, and continued so till his death. He was an extraordinary man, a complete master of arithmetic, a good mathematician, a master of music, understood Latin, French, and Greek, and could even prescribe as a physician upon an urgent occasion.

When I returned home, I could not think of being a burden to my father, so I went to a miller, thinking I should have plenty of time for my studies; but my master was so fond of the ale-house, that the whole care of the mill was left to me, and I was so nearly starved, that I was glad when I could get a little oatmeal mixed with water to eat. When my year's engagement with this man was over, I went to a farmer, who practised as a physician, and who promised to teach me that part of his business, but

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GRAY'S ELEGY IN A COUNTRY CHURCH-YARD.
THE celebrated Elegy in a Country Church-Yard, by GRAY, is well
known, and justly admired, by every one who has the lest preten-
sions to taste. But with all its polish, and deep poetic beauty and
feeling, it always appeared to me to be defective, and I have met
with a remark in Cecil's Remains, to the same effect. Amid a scene
so well calculated to awaken in a pious mind reflections on the
sublime truths, and inspiring hopes of Christianity, Gray, with the
exception of two or three somewhat equivocal expressions, says
scarcely a word which might not have been said by one who believed
that "death was an eternal sleep," and who was disposed to regard
the humble tenants of those tombs as indeed each in his narrow
cell for ever laid." With these views I have regretted, that senti-
ments similar to the following had not sprung up in the heart, and
received the exquisite touches of the classic pen of Gray. They
might, with great propriety, have followed the stanza, beginning
Far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife.
No airy dreams their simple fancies fired,
No thirst for wealth, nor panting after fame;
But truth divine sublimer hopes inspired,
And urged them onward to a nobler aim.
From every cottage, with the day arose
The hallowed voice of spirit-breathing prayer;
And artless anthems, at its peaceful close,

Like holy incense, charmed the evening air.
Though they, each tome of human lore unknown,
The brilliant path of science never trod,
The Sacred Volume claimed their hearts alone,
Which taught the way to glory and to God.
Here they from truth's eternal fountain drew,
The pure and gladdening waters day by day;
Learnt, since our days are evil, fleet, and few,
To walk in wisdom's bright and peaceful way.
In yon lone pile, o'er which hath sternly pass'd
The heavy hand of all-destroying Time,
Through whose low-mouldering aisles now sighs the blast,
And round whose altars grass and ivy climb:
They gladly thronged, their grateful hymns to raise,
Oft as the calm and holy Sabbath shone;
The mingled tribute of their prayers and praise,
In sweet communion rose before the Throne.
Here, from those honoured lips, which sacred fire
From Heaven's high chancery hath touched, they hear
Truths which their zeal inflame, their hopes inspire,
Give wings to faith, and check affliction's tear.
When life flowed by, and, like an angel, Death
Came to release them to the world on high,
Praise trembled still on each expiring breath,
And holy triumph beamed from every eye.
Then gentle hands their "dust to dust" consign;
With quiet tears, the simple rites are said,
And here they sleep, till at the trump divine,
The earth and ocean render up their dead.
[FROM AN AMERICAN WRITER.]

So completely is the ground impregnated with seeds, that if earth is brought to the surface from the lowest depth at which it is found, some vegetable matter will spring from it. In boring for water lately, at a spot near Kingston-onThames, some earth was brought up from a depth of 360 feet; this earth was carefully covered over with a handglass, to prevent the possibility of other seeds being deposited upon it, yet, in a short time, plants vegetated from it.-JESSE.

FAMILIAR ILLUSTRATIONS OF NATURAL

PHENOMENA

No. VII. THE TRADE WINDS.

In our own climate, the uncertainty of the wind has almost become a proverb. But we can yet see, that there are some general rules by which the currents of the air seem to be governed. Taking the average of the whole year, the wind blows much more frequently from the westerly quarter of the heavens than from the east; but there are several weeks in the spring, and in the early part of the summer, when easterly winds prevail. These effects are far too constant to arise without some fixed cause; and it is to be regretted, that we do not yet know enough of the course and force of the winds, to discover what all those causes are.

But, in other parts of the world, especially between the tropics, the winds blow with much greater regularity. Their direction can be calculated upon with such a degree of certainty, as to render them of the utmost importance to navigation; hence these stated currents of the air are called the Trade Winds.

The general phenomena are of this nature. Between the tropics, the tendency of the wind is from the eastward towards the west. To the north of the Equator, the wind blows from about N.E. to S.W.; and, to the south of the Equator, it blows from about S.E. to N.W. From some little distance, on either side of the Equator itself, there is no regular wind. There are usually baffling calms, accompanied with occasional violent storms.

The cause of the Trade Winds is very simple. They arise from the currents of cold air setting from the Poles towards the Equator, combined with the motion of the earth itself upon its axis. It is easy to see, that the action of the heat of the sun has a constant tendency to cause currents in the air. When air is heated, it becomes lighter than it was before; and any one may satisfy himself, that a current will be produced, when hotter and colder air communicate with each other, by holding a candle at the bottom and at the top of an open door, which communicates between a warm room and a cold passage; he will see that the warm air is running out at the top, while the cold air is running in at the bottom. Supposing, then, the whole earth to be at rest, and to be heated in the regions about the Equator much more than about the Poles, the air, at the earth's surface at the equator, being heated, would rise, and flow at the top of the atmosphere from the equator towards each pole, while the colder air of the poles would flow, at the bottom of the atmosphere, from the poles towards the equator, and thus a constant change of air would take place. On the surface of the earth there would be a constant northerly wind in the parts to the north of the equator, and a constant southerly wind in the parts to the south of the equator; but, near the equator itself, there would be a calm, the currents from North and South balancing each other, and the air there ascending continually from the surface to the higher parts of the atmosphere. Local causes will prevent the currents from the North and South Poles from neutralizing each other exactly on the equator. In the Atlantic Ocean, the region of calms and baffling winds thus occasioned, is always to the north of the equator, and its position varies at different periods of the year.

Such currents are continually taking place; but the direction of these currents, as observed at the surface of the earth, will be very materially altered in consequence of the motion of the earth itself. The earth turns round its axis once in twenty-four hours, in a direction from West to East; and, since

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the circumference of the earth at the equator is about 24,000 miles*, a place on the equator is carried round at the rate of about 1000 miles an hour; but any place north or south of the equator, does not move so fast, for it will plainly move through a less circle in the same time. Thus, a place very near the Poles scarcely moves at all; a place in the latitude of 60°, as at the Shetland Isles, moves only half as fast as at the equator, or at the rate of 500 miles an hour; a place in the latitude of 30°, as at Cairo, in Egypt, moves at the rate of 866 miles an hour; and as we advance towards the equator, the motion of the parts of the earth's surface continually increases, as is shown in the table below, which is given by Capt. Hall.

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LIT

If

0 (The Equator)

168

500

158

643

143

766

123

866

100

949

. 985

. 1000

a current of air is passing from the Poles to the Equator over the surface of the earth, it is carried continually from parts which are moving from West to East, with less rapidity, into those which are moving with a greater rapidity. With reference, then, to the surface of the earth, the current which is passing from the Northern regions towards the Equator, will be affected with two motions, one from North to South, arising from the actual motion of the air, the other from East to West, arising from the greater motion of the surface of the earth itself from West to East. The consequence of those two motions will be the production of an oblique motion, in a direction between the two: or there will be perceived a wind blowing from about the N.E. quarter. In like manner, the southerly current of air flowing from the South Pole towards the Equator will be changed, as it advances, into a current which comes from the South-easterly quarter, relatively to the surface of the earth.

As these currents advance, it is plain that the constant friction of the air, upon the surface of the earth, tends to give the air the same motion which the earth has, and that, in proportion as that effect is produced, the rapidity of the relative easterly current slackens. The air gradually acquires the motion of the part of the earth with which it is in contact, moves on with it, and becomes relatively at rest. The above table, given by Captain Hall, will also show that the difference in the rapidity of motion of two points at a given distance from one another measured along any meridian, decreases rapidly near the Equator, so that, as the air approaches the Equator, the friction of the surface has a longer time to act upon the current of air, coming from the Poles, and is more effective.

Hence we might expect, as it is found, that the apparent easterly Trade Wind would become weaker near the Equator itself: and, as we have already seen, the two northerly and southerly currents also, in a great measure, counterbalance each other at the Equator. The great regular causes of a Trade Wind being thus checked, there will be, near the Equator, a belt of calms, or baffling and uncertain winds, while to the North and South there will be a more settled current tending upon the whole from East to West. In the upper regions of the atmosphere, effects of * Accurately, 24,899 miles.

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