The First New Nation: The United States in Historical and Comparative Perspective

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Transaction Publishers, 1967 - 366 strani

The United States was the first major colony to revolt successfully against colonial rule. In this sense, it was the first "new nation." To see how, in the course of American history, its values took shape in institutions may help us to understand some of the problems faced by the new nations emerging today on the world scene. In The First New Nation, two broad themes occupy Seymour Martin Lipset's attention: the social conditions that make a stable democracy possible, and the extent to which the American experience was representative or exceptional.

The volume is divided into three parts, each of which deals with the role of values in a nation's evolution, but each approaches this role from a different perspective. Part 1, "America as a New Nation," compares early America with today's emerging nations to discover problems common to them as new nations, and analyzes some of the consequences of a revolutionary birth for the creation of a national character and style. Part 2, "Stability in the Midst of Change," traces how values derived from America's revolutionary origins have continued to influence the form and substance of American institutions.

Lipset concentrates on American history in later periods, selecting for discussion as critical cases religious institutions and trade unions. Part 3, "Democracy in Comparative Perspective," attempts to show by comparative analysis some ways through which a nation's values determine its political evolution. It compares political development in several modern industrialized democracies, including the United States, touching upon value patterns, value differences, party systems, and the bases of social cleavage.

 

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Introduction to the 1979 Edition
vi
Preface
xlii
Introduction
2
Establishing National Authority
16
The Crisis of Legitimacy and the Role of the Charismatic Leader
17
The Problem of National Unity
24
Opposition Rights and the Establishment of New Polities
37
The Need for Payoff
46
The American Political System and the Union Movement
197
Canada and Australia
200
Conclusion
204
Values and Democratic Stability
208
Value Patterns and a Democratic Polity
210
The United States and Great Britain
214
France and Germany
225
Social Change and Political Stability
240

Formulating a National Identity
62
The Need for Autonomy and Neutrality
63
The Role of the Intellectuals
67
Revolution as the Source of National Identity
75
Conclusion
91
A Changing American Character?
102
The Unchanging American Character
107
The Unchanging American Values and Their Connection with American Character
111
The Inadequacy of a Materialistic Interpretation of Change
123
Conclusion
130
Religion and American Values
141
AllPervasiveness a Consistent Characteristic of American Religion
142
Secularity a Persistent Trait of American Religion
152
Voluntarism the Source of Religious Strength
160
Trade Unions and the American Value System
171
the Source of American Unionism
174
Societal Values and the Union Movement
179
Societal Values and Union Leadership
188
Value Differences Absolute or Relative The EnglishSpeaking Democracies
249
Values and the Democratic Process
269
Values Social Character and the Democratic Polity
275
The Authoritarian versus the Democratic Personality
278
The Innerdirected versus the Otherdirected Personality
282
Party Systems and the Representation of Social Groups
287
Social Structure and the Character of the Party System
290
Social Structure and Electoral Systems
294
Party Systems and the Bases of Social Cleavage
296
Consequences of the Different Systems
308
Conclusion
313
Epilogue Some Personal Views on Equality Inequality and Comparative Social Science
319
Inequality in America
322
The EverPresent Conflict between Equality and Inequality
341
Comparative Analysis
344
Name Index
350
Subject Index
357
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