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sitions have been made, all looking to the best mode of devising a revenue from the mineral lands for the support of the general government."

He vigorously protested against the seizure of the mines by the government or the imposition of any unnecessary and burdensome taxation, and, pertinently, asked the question: “Why does not the resolution include the State of California and the Territories of Nevada, Idaho and New Mexico. In all these the precious metals are mined to a great extent on public lands. If the President is to take possession, in the name of the United States, of a mine in Arizona or Colorado, it follows by inevitable logic that he must do so throughout all the public lands."

This letter was followed by one to the “New York Herald,” printed May 4th, 1864, upon the same subject, in which Mr. Mowry particularly referred to a proposition made by Senator Conness of California, proposing that a tax of 5% be levied upon all bullion, gold or silver, refined at the mint, coupled with a law prohibiting the exportation of unstamped bullion, which amounted to a tax of five per cent upon the gross proceeds of all mines.

These resolutions in Congress failed of passage, and are only noted here to show the conviction at that time, which was shared in by General Carleton, that the government could raise sufficient money from the operation of the placers and other mines of Arizona to pay the National debt, and it was only natural that Governor Goodwin should share to some extent in this feeling, and desire that Arizona should derive a large income from her mines through the sale of

claims located by every discoverer of a mining property.

It is a fact, I think, that can hardly be questioned, that those who accepted office in Arizona under the Federal Government, did not do so for the meagre salaries allowed, but expected to grow up with the country and to establish their individual fortunes through the acquisition of mining property. To one of them this certainly was an incentive, as the following letters written by Judge Howell, the author of the Howell code, to his friend in Michigan, show:

“Territory of Arizona. “Office of the United States Supreme Court.

Tucson, 19 Feb. 1864. "Hon. Wm. A. Richmond,

Dear Sir:-Your favor of Nov. from New York reached me by express, en route from Fort Whipple to this place on the 13th inst.

“The express contained several letters for John, whom I left at the fort for the purpose of going into the mines with Surveyor-General Bashford. The Walker mines where they go are so destitute of water, that I think they will soon return. John has a full three months' supply for any place.

“I tendered him the Clerkship of this (First Judicial District) and before I left he informed me he would accept, and be here within four weeks. I think he can make it worth a thousand dollars a year, and will enable him to make a standpoint to emerge from when circumstances justify.

“This country is fabulously rich in gold and silver, but by far the richest portion is kept from

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being worked by the hostility of the Indians. Should a systematic, effective policy of protection be adopted, the world would be astonished at the result. The treasures are untold, and the government can safely issue five hundred millions more of 'Greenbacks and look to this region for their redemption with confidence, if the miners can only have the privilege of protecting themselves by an organization to be known as ‘Miners’ Corps' and furnished with ammunition and rations, without wages, and placed under the general charge of competent superintendents.

They would clear the country, (say 2,000 men), pay themselves from the earth, and prove more efficient than three times that number of armed troops.

“Theorize as much as you please, and some such measure must be adopted before it will prove effective.

“The presage has gone forth that the Apaches are unconquered, but the miners have cleaned them out' wherever they have gone in force, and they are the only men that have ever succeeded in doing so.

“As I cannot answer half the letters of inquiry I receive, I may yet write on the subject for general information.

“Very truly yours,

"W. T. HOWELL.“Tucson, 9 March, 1864.

9 , “Hon. Wm. A. Richmond,

Dear Sir:-Your favor of the 4th January is just received by express.

As I informed you in my last, John is yet in the mines, but I expect to hear from him daily. He has the refusal of the Clerkship here, worth

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