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They should be back before the end of the month, when their reports will be forwarded. It is unnecessary for me to take up the time of the War Department by making comments on the prospective results of such startling developments of treasure, whether to Arizona and New Mexico, or to the country at large; they will be apparent to all on a moment's reflection.

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"In other letters heretofore written, I have endeavored to impress upon your mind the importance of sending an additional regiment of cavalry—a full regiment—to this country. Authority has been received by the governor of New Mexico to raise in the Territory two regiments more of troops, but it is very doubtful if even one can now be raised; first because of the real scarcity of men; second because other more profitable pursuits interpose; third because nearly all the floating population will go to the new gold fields. An effort will be made to raise one regiment of infantry, as there are not horses in the Territory which can be spared from other labor to mount a regiment of cavalry. If a full regiment of cavalry could at once be sent here from the States, I would have troops quite sufficient, I hope, to whip the Indians, and to protect the people going to and at the mines. The authority to raise one independent company in each county, for the protection of the people and flocks and herds of that county, should be given to me. I have no inclination to ask for more authority or more troops than I need. I beg respectfully to say, if I am considered worthy of commanding so remote a department, some confidence should be reposed in my judg

ment-being, as I am, upon the ground—of what is absolutely wanted. If troops cannot be sent, permit me to recruit in Colorado territory. One thing should be borne in mind: Every regiment you send here, whether from the east or from California, will stay. Thus each one is a military colony, to people the vast uninhabited region between the Rio Grande and the Pacific. As winter is so near, time now is everything.

“Pray let serious attention be given to the subject of these new discoveries of gold. A new revolution in all that pertains to this country is on the eve of commencing and the government should provide for approaching emergencies. The people will flock to the mines, and should be protected.

"Providence has indeed blessed us. Now that we need money to pay the expenses of this terrible war, new mines of untold millions are found, and the gold lies here at our feet, to be had by the mere picking of it up! The country where it is found is not a fancied Atlantis; is not seen in golden dreams; but it is a real, tangible El Dorado, that has gold that can be weighed by the steelyards-gold that does not vanish when the finder is awake.

“I hope I may not be considered visionary, and therefore be denied reasonable help. This is a great matter not only for our present wants, but for the future security of our country; for, henceforth, in place of a desert, dividing peoples, we find a treasure which will attract not only a population to live upon that desert, but which will, as sure as the sun shines, bring the great railroad over the 35th parallel, and thus unite the two extremes of the country by


bars of steel, until, from the Atlantic to the Pacific, we become homogeneous in interest as in blood.

“I beg you will send to New Mexico a firstrate topographical engineer to map the new gold fields, and fix their position instrumentally. Congress should, by early legislation, determine whether the government shall have the right of seigniorage in these new treasures, and whether foreigners shall come and take gold from the country ad libitum and without tax.

“I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

“JAMES H. CARLETON, “Brigadier-General, Commanding. “Brigadier-General Lorenzo Thomas,

Adjutant-General U. S. A., Washington,

D. C. “Official:

“Erastus W. Wood,
“Captain 1st Vet. Inf. Č. V.

A. A. A. General."
Headquarters Department New Mexico.

“Santa Fe, N. M., September 13, 1863. “Sir: I have had the honor frequently to write to the War Department of the new gold fields which have been discovered along the Gila River, and upon the line of the 35th parallel, between the Rio Grande and the Rio Colorado. Enclosed herewith please to find copies of letters upon this subject which I have just received.

"“You will at once perceive that the capital, as well as the population, of the new Territory of Arizona will be near that oasis upon the desert out of which rise the San Francisco mountains, and in and beside which are found those extraordinary deposits of gold; and not at the insignificant village of Tucson, away in the sterile region toward the southern line of the Territory. This will render absolutely indispensable a new mail route over the Whipple road to the new gold fields, and thence crossing the Colorado at old Fort Mohave (now abandoned), and thence up the Mohave river and through the Cajon Pass to Los Angeles, California. People flocking towards these mines will clamor for, and will deserve to have, mail facilities. They will go from the east; they will come from California; therefore liberal appropriations should be made early in the approaching session of Congress to prepare the road; to establish a post near the San Francisco mountains; to re-establish old Fort Mohave; to have a first-class permanent ferry across the Colorado at that point; and to provide for an overland mail from Albuquerque to Los Angeles. The reason why I have presumed to write to you upon this important matter is that you may give it timely consideration.

There is no doubt but the reports of these immense deposits of gold are true. As a statesman you will readily imagine all of the political results which must at once ensue from such startling developments when they obtain publicity. This should not be given to them until we have official reports from Surveyor General Clark and a party I sent with him to see precisely into the matter. We know from various other sources what that report must be, at least sufficiently to make timely preparations for emergencies which will then at once arise.

“For myself there comes no little satisfaction in the thought that, for all the toil through the desert of the troops composing the column from California, there will yet result a substantial benefit to the country; that if those fellows, who encountered their hardships so cheerfully and patiently, who endured and suffered so much, have not had the good fortune to strike a good, hard, honest blow for the old flag, they have, at least, been instrumental in helping to find gold to pay the gallant men who have had that honor. Somebody had to perform their part in the grand drama upon which the curtain is about to fall. The men from California accepted unmurmuringly the role that gave them an obscure and distant part upon the stage, where it was known they could not be seen, and believed they would hardly be heard from; but in the great tragedy so cruelly forced upon us, they tried to perform their duty, however insignificant it might be, and to the best of their ability; and now, a finger of that Providence who has watched over us in our tribulation, and who blesses us, lifts a veil, and there, for the whole country, lies a great reward.

"I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

“JAMES H. CARLETON, “Brigadier-General, Commanding. “Hon. Montgomery Blair,

“Postmaster-General, Washington, D. C. “Official:

“Erastus W. Wood,
“Captain 1st Vet. Inf. C. V.

“A. A. A. General." The foregoing ends correspondence before reports were made by Surveyor-General Clark.

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