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more than all the other Clerkships in the Territory.

"Now for minerals: I have travelled five hundred miles in the Territory, and been fifty days on the road. While Indian hostilities continue, the silver mines of the southern portion are much surer and safer than any other, as we have sufficient protection to work them. Every day further develops their richness and extent. Southern Arizona and Sonora contain the mother deposits of silver on this continent. A silver mine once opened and tested is a safe and permanent investment. The deeper you go the wider and richer. Gold leads are apt to run out, break off suddenly, and become 'spotted,' as it is termed.

"Now for the modus operandi:

"Mines are discovered, tested, found rich and stock immediately created and sold in such a diluted condition that the investment is unprofitable. For instance, the expense of travel agencies, discovery, testing and all would not exceed from ten to twenty thousand dollars by nonresidents. If the stock was made from one to two hundred thousand dollars, according to the test, it would be profitable, but instead of that it ranges from a quarter to two millions of dollars, and the whole profits absorbed in the first instance. Now for a 'peep behind the curtain.' A resident here having the facilities can procure a mountaineer or miner to furnish him a lead for which after it is opened and proves good, he will have to pay him from one to four hundred dollars. A shaft can be sunk fifty feet from 4 to 7 dollars per foot. The depth of thirty feet secures the mine against all the world, and at that

depth you can judge of its extent and richness. If you proceed, a simple,machine and two mules, which will test and pay as you go, will be all that is necessary. If all is right at thirty feet, at fifty you have a mine the stock of which at one hundred thousand dollars, would be worth more than dollar for dollar, and be permanent.

"All this would cost not to exceed fifteen hundred dollars by a resident here and not more than one thousand if lucky the first trial. This is the real-the Wall Street speculators the ideal.

"Keep out of Wall Street, as the fountain head can be reached much cheaper through the right channel.

"This information is for your benefit-not to be made public, but to those only who wish to try their luck.

"The best way to reach here is by water on the Pacific side. From San Francisco to the nearest port on the Gulf, and then by land. As this country has been overrun by Indians until now, and, consequently, produce is scarce, I cannot advise a large influx of population unless by way of California, and they should bring their supplies with them from that State.

"As our express does not go east under ten weeks, I send this via San Francisco as an experiment. Will attend to any matters and render any assistance in my power.

"Yours very truly,


In our day the author of such a letter would be subject to indictment for fraudulent use of the mails.

Vein mining at that time was little understood. Holes in the ground in Nevada, in the Reese River and other districts, not over ten feet deep, were being sold at from fifteen thousand and to fifty thousand dollars each, and, naturally, the furore extended to every terrritory where mineral was found.

The Governor in his message called attention to the navigation of the Colorado River. As before stated, a memorial was passed by the Legislature asking Congress to appropriate money for its improvement, which, like everything else coming from Arizona in the way of a petition to the Government, to alleviate conditions there, was passed over in silence. The Colorado River, as is seen by the memorial, was navigable as high as Callville, a post established near the mouth of the Grand Canyon, which was the shipping point for several years into Utah. Mining, as we have seen, was being prosecuted to a great extent along this river up to Bill Williams' Fork.

About the latter part of the year 1863, or some time in 1864, the date not being fully established, Capt. W. H. Hardy, one of the pioneers of Mohave County, established a ferry and toll road, and also a store, at Hardyville, which, for about nine months in the year, was the head of navigation on the Colorado River, and which was about 150 miles from Yuma. Freight was discharged at this point and transferred by team to Prescott and other points in the north.

The town of Ehrenberg, first designated as Mineral City, according to Hinton, was founded by an association in March, 1863, of which Herman Ehrenberg was elected surveyor. In 1867

it was resurveyed, and called Ehrenberg. A ferry was established there in 1862, and from this point goods were transferred to Weaver and other points in Arizona.

In order to encourage the California Volunteers to make a little money on the side, General Carleton, in a communication to the AdjutantGeneral of the United States Army at Washington, D. C., said:

"I have sent four companies of California Volunteers to garrison Fort West, in the Pinos Altos gold regions. I beg to ask authority to let, say, one-fourth of the command at a time have one month's furlough to work in the gold mines on their own account. In this way the mines and the country will become developed, while the troops will become contented to remain in service where the temptation to leave is very great.

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Comparatively little is generally known of the activities of Charles D. Poston, Arizona's first Delegate to Congress, but the Congressional Globe, covering the 2d Session of the 38th Congress, shows that the "Father of Arizona," as Mr. Poston was known lovingly to his contemporaries, did all that was possible for one in his position, and secured from an unwilling government everything possible for Arizona. On December 13th, 1864, he introduced, by unanimous consent, a bill to provide for the settlement of private land claims in the Territory of Arizona; which was read a first and second time by its title, and referred to the Committee on Private Land Claims. On December 21st, 1864, he introduced, also by unanimous consent, the following resolution, which was read, considered, and agreed to:

"Resolved: That the Committee on Foreign Affairs be directed to inquire into the expediency of making an appropriation for the purpose of colonizing the Friendly Indians of Arizona on a reservation to be selected from the public lands.

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January 25th, 1865, was a busy day for Mr. Poston. On that day, by unanimous consent, he submitted the following resolution, which was read, considered, and agreed to:

"Resolved: That the Committee on Public Lands be, and they are hereby, instructed to inquire into the expediency of adopting the code of mining laws passed by the Legislative Assembly of the Territory of Arizona hereto appended."

The papers accompanying the resolution were ordered to be printed.

On the same day, Delegate Poston presented the memorial and joint resolution of the Legislative Assembly of the Territory of Arizona, asking Congress to increase the pay of members of the Legislative Assembly and Territorial Judges, and other officials; which were referred to the Committee on Ways and Means, and ordered to be printed.

At the same time Mr. Poston presented the memorial of the Legislative Assembly of the Territory of Arizona, asking of Congress an appropriation of $150,000 for placing the Indians of the Colorado on a reservation; which was referred to the Committee of Ways and Means, and ordered to be printed.

Mr. Poston also presented the memorial of the Legislative Assembly of Arizona, asking an appropriation of $150,000 for the improvement of the navigation of the Colorado River; which was

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