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referred to the Committee on Commerce, and ordered to be printed.

He also presented the memorial of the Legislative Assembly of the Territory of Arizona, asking of Congress an appropriation of $250,000 in aid of the war against the Apaches; which was referred to the Committee on Military Affairs, and ordered to be printed.

He also presented the following resolutions and memorials of the Legislature of the Territory of Arizona: Requesting arms; which was referred to the Committee on Military Affairs and ordered to be printed. Resolution requesting mail facilities; which was referred to the Committee on the Postoffice and Post Roads, and ordered to be printed. Joint resolution instructing the Delegate from the Territory to ask of Congress the appointment of commissioners to fix the boundary line of the Territory of Arizona and other Territories; which was referred to the Committee on Territories, and ordered to be printed. A memorial asking for a change of the boundary line between Arizona and the State of California, which was referred to the Committee on Territories, and ordered to be printed.

On February 3rd, 1865, Mr. Poston, by unanimous consent, introduced a bill for the organization of the Territory of Arizona into a land district; which was read a first and second time, and referred to the Committee on Public Lands.

In the discussion on the General Appropriations Bill, on the 2nd day of March, 1865, Mr. Poston moved to amend the bill by inserting the following clause:

For colonizing friendly Indians in Arizona on a reservation on the Colorado River and sup


plying them with implements of husbandry and seeds to enable them to become self-sustaining, the sum of $150,000, to be extended under the direction of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs,” and, on the same day, Mr. Poston made the following speech in Congress:

“Mr. Chairman, Arizona, more than any other Territory of the United States, rises to the dignity of historic fame; it is even prehistoric, reaching far back into the dim traditions of the Aztecs. As everywhere else on earth, the history of man is here distinctly marked by the struggle between civilization and barbarism. The Aztecs lived in continual warfare with the barbarous tribes of the mountains, and their descendants to this day maintain the warfare bequeathed to them by their ancestors. The Aztecs were peaceable, industrious Indians, living by the pursuits of agriculture, dwelling in communities, and exercising a system of government with eminent principles of justice. The barbarians of the mountains were their natural foes and finally drove them into southern Mexico, leaving only a few degenerate descendants in the north.

“The Spanish explorers found a very interesting race of Indians in that part of the continent now belonging to the United States and designated as the Territory of Arizona. A knowledge of this remote people was first given to the European world by the romantic expedition of Cabeza de Vaca, who crossed the continent from the savannas of Florida, to the mountains of New Mexico in 1538. In these remote regions he found a people bearing evidences of European origin and practicing many of the arts of civilization. They were supposed to be the descendants of the colony of the Welsh Prince Madoc who sailed from Wales for the New World in the eleventh century-celebrated in song by Southey. They are now called Moquis, and I beg leave to call attention to their present condition as described in an official report of Colonel Christopher Carson, first cavalry, New Mexican Volunteers. “ 'Headquarters Navajo Expedition,

“ 'December 6, 1863. “"Captain: I have the honor to report for the information of the department commander, that on the 15th ultimo I left this post with companies C. D. G. H. & L., first cavalry, New Mexican volunteers dismounted, for the purpose of exploring the country west of the Oribi villages, and if possible to chastise the Navajos inhabiting that region. On the 16th I detached thirty men with Sergeant Herrera, of Company C. first cavalry, New Mexican volunteers on a fresh trail which intersected our route. The sergeant followed the trail for twenty miles when he overtook a small party of Navajos, two of whom he killed, wounded two, and captured fifty head of sheep and one horse. En route the party came on a village lately deserted, which they destroyed. The energy and zeal displayed by the sergeant and his party on this occasion merit my warmest approbation.

“On the 21st arrived at Moqui village. I found on my arrival that the inhabitants of all the villages, except the Oribis, had a misunderstanding with the Navajos, owing to some injustice perpetrated by the latter. I took advantage of this feeling, and succeeded in obtaining representatives from all the villages, Oribi excepted, to accompany me on the warpath. My object in insisting upon parties of these people accompanying me was simply to involve them so far that they could not retract; to bind them to us, and place them in antagonism to the Navajos. They were of some service, and manifested a great desire to aid in every respect. While on this subject I would respectfully represent that these people, numbering some four thousand souls, are in a most deplorable condition, from the fact that the country for several miles around their village, is quite barren and is enfirely destitute of vegetation.

They have no water for purposes of irrigation, and their only dependence for subsistence is on the little corn they raise when the weather is propitious, which is not always the case in this latitude. They are a peaceable people, have never robbed or murdered the people of New Mexico, and are in every way worthy of the fostering care of the government. Of the bounty so unsparingly bestowed by it on other Pueblo Indians, ay, even on the marauding bands, they have never tasted, and I earnestly recommend that the attention of the Indian Bureau be called to this matter. I understand that a couple of years'annuities for the Navajos, not distributed, are in the possession of the Superintendent of Indian Affairs at Santa Fe, and I consider that if such an arrangement would be legal, these goods would be well bestowed on these people.

"6"C. CARSON, Colonel First Cavalry, New Mexican Volun

teers, "Captain Benjamin C. Cutler, A. A. G.'

“In antagonism to these interesting people, we have the barbarous Apaches, the Bedouins of the desert and the robbers of the mountains.

“Time immemorial their hand has been against every man, every man's hand against them; they disdain to labor, and live by robbery and plunder. For three centuries they have stayed the progress of civilization in that part of the continent, and now hold its richest mineral treasures from the grasp of the white man. They have successfully defended their mountain homes against the Spaniards, the Mexicans, and the Americans. A few hardy and enterprising Americans have been endeavoring to penetrate that El Dorado for several years, but for want of military support and on account of the desolating war which has spread its ravages to the confines of Arizona, they are yet prevented from exploring that inviting field of mineral wealth. The subjugation or extermination of this merciless tribe is a measure of stern justice which ought not to be delayed. Their subjugation would open to our hardy miners an unexplored gold field north of the Gila, which the Spaniards considered the true El Dorado. A sickly sympathy for a few beastly savages should not stand in the way of the development of our rich gold fields, or the protection of our enterprising frontiersmen. The settlers around the Capital (Prescott) have kept one hundred men in the field for more than a year at their own expense; their leader, Colonel King Woolsey, has been ruined by the Apaches, and adopted this method of retaliation. They have waited in vain for the protection of the military branch of the govern

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