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tides of the Pacific Ocean, where nature said to man, ‘Thus far shalt thou go, and no farther.' We had to turn our course southward, and sought the unpeopled lands of northern Mexico.

"The Government followed in the train of the people, and in a period of great prosperity, when the Treasury was overflowing with gold, gave $10,000,000 for what was called the Gadsden Purchase. The people rushed into the new purchase and soon the indomitable industry and energy of the coming race was apparent in the discovery of mineral wealth and the establishment of relations with the nearest commercial centers. The industry of our people soon spread a beneficial influence in all northern Mexico; the Indians were softening under the influences of civilization, and I wish the sequel could be omitted. Would that Lethean waters could produce oblivion. In less than sixty days after the demon of civil war had commenced his ravages on this side of the continent, the infant settlements of Arizona were abandoned and the track of receding civilization was, for the first time in the history of this country, turned eastward, marked in its retreat by new-made graves. For two years the Territory remained a prey to anarchy. "At the end of that time, by the indefatigable efforts of a few fast friends, a provisional government for the Territory was organized, and a staff of Federal officers of more than ordinary ability and character were sent across the plains to establish civil government in that remote region. In the overwhelming events of the great civil war impending, it was a grand moral spectacle to see the Republic sending its agents to a remote and distant Territory to plant the

banner of freedom on the ruins of a former civilization. We are but repeating history in following the footsteps of the Aztecs from their northern homes to central Mexico. The civil officers sent out by the President have discharged this duty, and discharged it well.

"At a greater distance from this capital than any proconsul ever planted the eagles of Rome from the imperial city, they established the stars and stripes of the Republic. In a beautiful lap of the mountains where never white man trod before, they located the capital of the Territory, and named it in honor of the Aztec historian, Prescott. On this very spot there is an Indian mound with the remains of an ancient fortification of the Montezumas, reminding us forcibly of the mutations of time and the rise and decline of nations; but nowhere yet in ruins do we find a temple dedicated to the living God. Let us take warning and lay deep the foundations of the Christian faith, not only in the monuments of Christianity, but in the hearts of the people.

"In that peaceful mountain home no sectional political differences rankle in the heart. It was my good fortune on the last anniversary of our Independence to assist in its celebration in that primitive capital. The people who had borne the banner of freedom from Bunker Hill to those distant mountains and the men who had escaped the horrors of war in the Old Dominion joined in fraternal celebration of Independence day, and consecrated themselves to the future prosperity of the Territory. And there in those everlasting mountains the genius of the American people will build a capital which will rear

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its domes and spires to the heavens when 'Time shall doubt of Rome.'

"Such is the genius of American civilization. It may be impeded now by the horrors of civil war, but the day is not far distant when it will overleap the boundary of nations like an avalanche, and spread itself over northern Mexico. It is destiny, and it may be a duty to carry our institutions into that country; and God send the day, when as a united people, we may heal the discords of civil war by joining armies now engaged in fratricidal strife to drive from this continent the fungus of European monarchy. I am willing to join in paeans to universal emancipation for the sake of national unity. "The nationality of the American people' is the motto upon which I was sent into this House, and when it ceases I shall leave it without regret.

"It is a source of extreme mortification that I am unable to present this amendment with the approbation of the Committee of Ways and Means, but it has not been possible to bring them to an estimate of the justice and importance of the measure. If the same economy pervades every branch of the administration of the Government, the taxpayers will have no cause of complaint. We have neither military protection, mail facilities, nor any of the fostering cares of Government; but we prefer rather to indulge in pleasant hopes of the future than unworthy complaint. The Pacific States and Territories are rich in wealth, filling up rapidly with an indomitable population and 'by and by will grow a little stronger.' Confident in strength and hopeful of the future, we are willing to 'bide our time.' With five hundred thou

sand square miles of mineral lands, we do not despair. With a climate surpassing any other part of the continent, and perhaps of the world, we shall 'Multiply and replenish the earth.'

"No Alpine top nor Appennine valley is waked to industry by a brighter sunlight than bathes the mountains and valleys of Arizona. It is the land of the olive and the vine. The pearls of the Orient were not richer in purity and value than those of the sea of Cortez. The gold of Ophir was not so abundant as that which awaits the hand of industry in our pregnant mountains. The 'Planchas de Plata' are the richest silver mines known to history. We are the children of your loins; give us sympathy. We are brethren of the same family; give us help. Nurture us, strengthen us, raise us up to dignity, and in a few short years we shall come to add another block to this grand mosaic temple of freedom which we hope will endure to the remotest ages.

"The uniform courtesy and kindness with which the Delegates from the remote Territories are received in this capital inspires the most grateful emotions.

"As this is the first occasion on which I have presumed to occupy the valuable time of the House, accept my sincere thanks for your kind attention."

It is barely possible that the reason most of Arizona's demands were not granted was the desire of Congress for economy, but there seems to have been a determined opposition, most of it, perhaps, underground, against the granting of the demands. This is evidenced by the following, which is quoted from the Report of the Joint

Special Committee on the Condition of the Indian tribes, appointed under Joint Resolution of March 3, 1865, and printed by the Government Printing Office at Washington:

"Indorsement on communication from Hon. Charles D. Poston, delegate from Arizona, to the War Department, Washington, D. C., January 12, 1865. Recommends the establishment of a military post at Amboy; also an Indian reservation in that vicinity, which requires protection, &c., &c. (Referred by General Halleck to headquarters department of New Mexico, January 17th, 1865.)

"February 18, 1865. "Respectfully returned. I do not think there is any military necessity for the establishment of a post at the mouth of Bill Williams' Fork on the Colorado of the West; nor do I agree with the Hon. Mr. Poston about having an Indian reservation on the Colorado.

"There are very grave objections to going to the expense of such an establishment in such an inaccessible country, surrounded as it is by deserts; besides, the Mojave Indians are at peace, and could not with propriety or profit be moved from their part of the valley of that river to another part further down.

"The other Indians, living upon the various slopes of the elevated country from which rise the San Francisco mountains, are not a warlike race, and can easily be managed, if treated with moderation, judgment, and firmness, until the country is filled with white settlers; then, as in California, they can be gathered together at some point, to be chosen with care, where they can be fed and protected until the destiny, which has un

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