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Gulch, and in the morning strolled up the Gulch six miles, the distance which is claimed.' On our return we dined, by invitation, with Mr. St. James, a gentleman from Denver, Colo., who has a store on the Gulch. He gave us some valuable information regarding the mines, laws, etc. He also introduced us to Mr. Smith, Recorder for the District, who politely opened his records and presented us with a written copy of the laws.

"We found that the mines were not worked to a great extent on account of the scarcity of water. There were while I was there but a few claims which had water on them. The workers of the few lucky claims were making from ten to one hundred dollars per day. Many claims had been taken up by miners who have since left the country and are now 'jumpable,' the law requiring that each claim shall be worked every ten days in order that the claimant may hold it.

“During the night snow fell to the depth of three feet, and quite a number of 'hackells' (small cabins) were hidden beneath the drifts. Àt roll-call Mose turned up missing, and a search was immediately instituted by my partner and myself. We started for the side of the mountain where the snow was not so deep as in the Gulch; thinking he might have strayed in search of the very scarce article of sacarta, (grass). After looking around for about an hour, thinking whether or not we had better give up the search, we stopped to rest and consider. Thompson sat down on what he supposed was the fallen limb of a tree. Imagine his surprise at being suddenly pitched headlong into the snow by the rising of the lost jackass which had been so snowed in as to leave only the top of his head and his ears exposed, forming a tempting chair for his weary pursuers. By means of a good deal of hard tugging we got the old fellow down to the cabin before a blazing fire where he gradually thawed out.

“We remained in the Gulch ten days, prospecting several deserted claims, but found nothing that would warrant our locating. Many of the miners were about leaving to join the Gov.'s expedition going East to the Francisco and Salt Rivers, seeking a site for the capital in a region which many supposed to be richer in minerals than any yet discovered.

On leaving Walker's we returned to Forbes ranch, where we met Surv. Genl. Bashford and Atty. Gage. The Surveyor being anxious to make prospects and get specimens and information in view of a report to the Dept., we joined him and put in a sluice on Granite Creek, which we ran until the water failed, (forty-eight hours), finding gold in almost every pan of dirt. As soon as the water fails, the digging suspends, the miner fails, pulls up stakes, and leaves. There are in Walker's, Granite Creek and the Hasiamp Diggings, about four hundred miners, most of whom have located quartz leads (lodes) and are holding on for capitalists to come in with means and machinery. The country is rich, but the scarcity of water ruins many a man's castles.

On returning to Fort Whipple Mar. 4th, I joined a small party, Maj. Duffield (U. S. Marshal) and others, about starting for Tucson. (I joined them and started on the 5th.) We made our first camp about twenty-five miles from the Fort; signs of Indians were numerous, but with a watchful guard, bowie knife and pistols at our belts, shot-guns with charges of eighteen six-shooter bullets to the barrel, within reach, we straightened out upon a soft rock and slept as comfortably as has been usual since our arrival upon the red man's hunting grounds, intrusting ourselves to Him who watches over the virtuous and the good. Since Morehouse and myself had that severe skirmish with the Indians before reaching Fort Whipple, my forelock seems dearer to me than ever.

“At about daybreak Capt. Butcher of 11 Mo. Vol., came up with a detachment of his company, having left Fort Whipple during the night upon hearing that the Indians were in strong force upon the lower Hasiamp Diggings and had killed that day five Mexicans and three Americans. The Capt. thought it unsafe for such a small party as ours to proceed further, and advised us to go with him to the Hasiamp, whence, if necessary, he would give us an escort. We acceded, of course, and were not long making up our minds, knowing that by going with him we were sure of protection and but about twelve hours out of our time. On our arrival at Vickroy's cabin on the Hasiamp, we found about fifty miners congregated for protection. Indians had been seen at different points during the day and a large number of campfires appeared at night on the mountains. The Major being anxious to proceed southward, in the morning we were furnished with an escort and proceeded via trail to Antelope. We passed the dead bodies of the five Mexicans who had been killed the day before. They were muti

lated in the most horrible manner, heads, ears, feet and legs cut off, etc., etc. Fifteen arrows were in the body of one. The fires around which these Indians had had their war dance were still burning. It was an awful sight.

“We arrived at Antelope, (Weaverville), about dark. Here is where gold was found on the top of a mountain and from forty to fifty thousand dollars taken out with jack-knives. There is a man here in Tucson who was one of the first to discover the rich claim.' He has one piece which weighs $92, and twelve nuggets which weigh over $700. He has at several times taken out thirteen pounds in three hours, $3,120.00. What do you think of such diggings? There is no gold to be found about there except on the very summit of the mountain, which is in the hands of a few men.

“We left Antelope on the 10th of March and proceeded via Pima Villages (Pueblo Indians) to Tucson. In a future letter I will give you a plat of this town with a description of the houses, inhabitants, mode of living, etc.

“There is not a doubt but that this is the richest mineral country in the world, but the scarcity of water prevents the placer (surface) diggings from being developed. There are parties en route from California, I understand, who intend putting into operation quartz mills in the different districts. We await the results. I was shown yesterday a gold bullet which the holder took from the pouch of an Indian he had killed. He had found it with several other lead and stone bullets in the Indian's pouch.

“The silver mines below here are getting ready for operations. One, the 'Mowry' I

understand has been running for some time. It will be impossible for either the gold or silver mines to be worked successfully until the Indians are exterminated. Their depredations are of daily occurrence. I have a good Utah horse which would readily bring $100 in the States, which I offered for $40, but found no purchaser. All in this section had rather, at present, invest in a faro bank, than in livestock. In the former there is some hope, but the latter is confiscated sure when Johnny Apache makes his round.

“Provisions are at present very high, flour .25¢, bacon .60€, coffee $1.00, sugar $1.00, eggs $1.00 doz., the rest in proportion.

“There are two Cal. Companies stationed here, both of which are on half rations.

“I will make inquiries and investigations in regard to the mining interest here, and write at length in my next. “Regards to all.

"Your son,

“JONATHAN. To Wm. A. Richmond, “Michigan.

“Tucson, Arizona,

“April 3d, 1864. “My dear Parents :

"By this mail I write you giving you my experience in the mines, which was by no means limited, I being between three and four weeks in the different districts. Gold, silver, copper, tin and coal are to be found in abundance in the Territory of Arizona, but the great requisite for developing the gold mines, i. e., water, is not to be found when needed.

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