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live. The reason for this state of things is that people have not been able to cultivate the valleys on account of the Indians, and all of the supplies have been brought from Cal. or Sonora, where duties are collected.

“The Gov. before leaving Fort Whipple, appointed King Woolsey (an old mountaineer) on his staff, with rank of Lieut.-Col., and gave him provisions and ammunition for a campaign against the Apaches. He was not long in raising a party of one hundred miners, and is now on the war trail. Troops are to be sent out from Fort Whipple and this place soon and hopes are entertained of a speedy extermination.

“Arizona will have no peace and her great wealth must remain undeveloped until this is accomplished.

“The Gov. before leaving for Tubac and the silver mines last week issued his proclamation designating the Judicial Districts and assigning Judges, appointing time of holding court, etc.

“The Territory is divided into three Districts. The first comprises all the section south of the Gila, Judge Howell, assignee, place of holding court, Tucson; times last Tuesday in May, to continue two weeks, and last Tuesday in October, to continue two weeks.

“Judge Allyn is assigned to the Second District to be stationed at La Paz on the Colorado. Chief Justice Turner is assigned to the Third District, to be stationed by subsequent proclamation, probably when, if ever, a site for the capitol is found.

“Judge Howell, on being assigned, at once gave me the appointment as clerk, took oath, etc. “You write about sending safe, stock of goods, etc. Either of your safes would probably pay you here. Could, as you say, take deposits or sell to the Treas. Dept., but the cost of getting here would be not less than $500. Freighters had much rather transport goods at half the price than to take the responsibility of getting a safe weighing 2500 lbs. through here. “A

stock of goods is what money is to be made on. Everything sells here at a profit of from two to three hundred per cent. Coffee, sugar, tea, cocoa, bacon, lard and butter in 10 lb. cans, factory cloth, calico, canned meats, assorted, canned fruits and jellies, Yankee notions, stationery, soap, candles, liquors (good brands), champagne, bitters, tinware, camp kettles, frying pans, axes, whip-saws, ammunition, pistols, derringers and six shooters, raisins, dried currants, etc., matches, hoop skirts, shirts, pants, coats, etc., paper collars, shoes, boots, gaiters, yeast powders, saleratus, salt, in fine, everything usually kept in a first rate store in the East, both groceries and dry goods; never mind silks and satins in bill of dry goods, but everything in the calico line. Flour, beans, corn and dried peaches, quinces, can be purchased here at the proper season very reasonably. In my former letter I wrote it would not do to bring out goods, thinking by the way you wrote that Charley Mosley, or some one wished to bring out a few hundred dollars worth, which I say now there is no need of. If a person intends bringing out a stock of goods, bring a big one, it will all sell.

“Goods can be purchased probably very reasonably in Cal., shipped to Guaymas, Sonora, by boat, and then brought here by wagon train

three hundred miles, but the duties would probably be as much as the freight via Santa Fe.

“Wagons and mules, large ones not under six years old, would bring a good deal more than cost, provided they were got through all right from the States. A person can do well freighting here for mining companies, from six to ten cents per pound from mines to Fort Yuma or Guaymas, etc." (Letter incomplete.)

“Territory of Arizona. “Office of the United States Supreme Court.

“Tucson, May 5th, 1864. "Dear Father:

“Mail after mail and yet nothing from home. I have given up all hopes of hearing from you before fall, or until this blasted military leaves the country.

“The Governor returned from the silver mining region a few days since. He returns to Fort Whipple the first of the week.

“It is not yet determined where to call the first Legislature. It is not at all probable that it will be called here first, but ultimately (on motion of legislature) it will, without doubt, be at this place.

“Since my last I have been to San Xavier, nine miles below here, to visit the old mission church, one of the wonders of the world. The building, in places, shows signs of decay, and the inner walls have been very badly mutilated, probably by the Indians. (There are over twenty statues of life size carved out of solid wood which are considered by many to be a study for modern sculptors.)

“I also started for the silver region of Santa Barbara last Friday, together with Majors Stickney & Duffield (U. S. Marshal) who have interests there. We were out twenty-hour hours, being in the saddle all of the time, when we returned, having lost the trail, but found many fresh Indian trails. We gave it up being unable to find the trail which it was necessary we should do to get to water. We will not undertake it again before the middle of June after Court. Then I am in hopes to spend some time in that section.

“Interests can be got in many lodes, but as for working one without an immense capital, it would be foolish. It is as Mowry says: 'It takes a gold mine to work a silver one.' I have made you acquainted with my ideas of silver mining, but will repeat. Interests, 12, 14, 16, 18, or a whole mine may be bought upon prospecting it for from $200 to $1,000. After purchasing, sink a shaft, produce specimens, send to New York, San Francisco, Smithsonian Institute, Washington, with label or stamp, and wait the action of capitalists, and when agents are sent out to inspect, show them around and, if possible, sell them a claim say for $3,000, $4,000 or $5,000.

“I wrote you in regard to forwarding goods which I think would be justified either from the States or San Francisco. Goods can be bought there for greenbacks and brought here in the mines and sold for gold and silver. Should you conclude to forward me a stock or place funds for the purchase in San Francisco, say $5000 or $6000 to start on, I will, I guarantee it, double it in a year's time. Had I money here to work with I could make a spec in the street; for instance, a man comes in and has a wagon to sell cheap; buy, hold on for a day or two, and sell

for double. Same with grain in the season. Prices in this country fluctuate hourly. To operate in any way funds must be placed in San Francisco. No one here takes drafts on N. Y. or the East.

“I am very busy making copies of Gov.'s Proclamation assigning Judges, etc. Business for courts comes in all at once.

Have many suits on hand. Mail leaves. Will write giving account of Tucson and vicinity soon as business lets up a little. Much love to all.

"Your son,

"JONATHAN. I can attend to business outside without interference as soon as Court is over, May 31st."

“Santa Rita Mine,

“Arizona, Aug. 17th, 1864. Dear Father:

“Your letters from New York (June 3d & 6th) were recd. just before I left Tucson. Should like to go ahead and open and prospect several silver lodes which I have in view, but in the absence of my friend, Judge Howell, with whom I am to operate, I am required to hold on, which I am very sorry for fear that others may step in and endeavor to become interested. Things are at present very changeable. Greenbacks will not go here at all. The stores in Tucson are all closed and will probably remain closed until the news from the States is more favorable. I left Tucson ten days ago in company with Mr. Wrightson, Prest. of the Santa Rita Mine, Mr. Hopkins, Agt. of the Maricopa Copper Mine and Dr. Locke, of Cincinnati. We have visited the mines in this vicinity, done a little surveying, and to-morrow, weather per

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