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“The Mexicans who are employed are allowed as stated above, 60¢ a day and a ration of 16 lb. flour a week; their coffee, sugar, &c., they are obliged to purchase at a light advance on the cost. A good supply of goods are kept on hand at all the principal mines, their Peons, (Mexicans), being good customers, oftentimes drawing goods to the amount of their wages. It would be to the interest of the mine when once opened to purchase their supplies in the States.

“It would be very difficult at the present time to get white labor, but by looking out and being on hand, men may be found.

“In working a mine it is necessary to have at least half the number of white men that you have Mexicans; the latter are so treacherous, being ready at any moment to plunge a knife into a white man. Col. Poston's brother was killed while in the store at the ‘Serra Colorado' and Mr. Wrightson's brother was killed here where I am writing, by Mexicans.

“Now for the greenback question. They are not worth 25¢ in this territory. They will not go excepting at one or two stores where they are selling out in hopes of getting out of the country. There they are taken at from 20¢ to 25° on a dollar. Pretty state of affairs when the U. S. allows her currency to depreciate to that, when those who can get nothing else but the blasted stuff have to pay out all they can earn to keep them alive. Think of my office 25¢ for drawing up and taking affidavit, 50¢ for Writ of Attachment, etc. My paper costs me $2.00 a quire. Can anyone expect me to do well at such rates? You give Judge H. and myself power to draw partnership drafts on you to pay the expenses of opening and testing several mines. The money is not here, besides a draft on the East goes at a discount when negotiated. The only way, if funds cannot be sent here, would be to have them placed in San Francisco (WellsFargo & Co.) or with other parties on whom the Judge and I, jointly, could draw drafts payable either in gold or paper as the circumstances might require.

We have no communication either with California or the East at present. The Military Express mail has been taken off. God only knows when another will be put on. I send this by a portion of this, the last company of soldiers in this part of the territory. They leave today.

“Judge H. should be here to see Tucson and vicinity depopulated, the troops leaving, etc.

“Should a mail route be opened through Tucson from the States to California, there would be a prospect of the country's being populated and developed, but until then, communication being cut off, there is but little hope.

“If Judge H. was here and we furnished with funds, we could, at the present state of things, purchase claims very reasonable (for coin); get them recorded, and hold on until spring, by which time we should probably be able to open them.

“Should it so happen that we should get the capital here everything would advance 100 per cent, (Mines, ranches, etc.). The mines which I have in view are about seventy miles West by South from Tucson and but one hundred and fifty miles from the port of La Libertad on the Gulf of California, State of Sonora, Mexico.

"The Port of Libertad is one of the best sea ports on the Coast, having depth of water for the largest vessels afloat and being well protected. That part of Sonora, including Libertad, will, in all probability, be purchased and annexed to this territory before long. The wagon road from Tucson to the Gulf is good, but there is a scarcity of water.

"Write what we shall do, and as soon as the Judge arrives we will attend. I am very much in need of boots, pants and shirts. Boots are worth here, kip $30.00; calf shoes $15.00; pants 25$ and 30$; shirts $10 to 15$. Had I the funds would send you to purchase, but I have barely enough to purchase grub with. Your draft for 50$ I have not yet used. I should like for you to send by the Judge two of those new patent steel collars enamelled. They are very good for this country, being cleaned with a wet rag, (I say 'rag'because that is about all we have here), size 1542

“When or how we shall get our next mail I know not. As soon as we have a mail we can depend on, I shall send Mother and Grandmother the 'Arizona Miner.' I am already a subscriber. Much love to mother and the girls and regards to friends.

“Yours &c.,


J. RICHMOND. “N. B. If not too hard on your pocket, I would like to have you send me a Colt's largest size revolver with accompaniments. The one I have (Smith & Wesson) does not carry lead enough. I am on my way to Tucson to attend the court. Please say to Judge H. that I have

written him several times, will write again from Tucson. Send slips from papers in envelopesdirected plain 'Clerk Dist. Court, Tucson, Ari


“Tucson, Dec. 1st, 1864. "Dear Sir:

“Another opportunity offers for transmitting tidings to our relatives and friends. A party of six returned miners leave here in the morning for their homes on the Rio Grande, and by them we hope to connect with the regular mail to the States.

“The First Legislature of this Territory adjourned sine die on the 10th Nov. after a session of forty days. The laws which were passed will not go into effect until the 1st of January, 1865. Most of the code submitted by Judge Howell has been adopted, and is to be called the 'Howell Code.' An appropriation of $2500 was made for the Judge. The laws are to be printed in pamphlet form at the office of the "Arizona Miner,' and two hundred copies are to be printed and bound in a cheap form in California. The only copy of the laws which we now have is a rough printed copy of the Mining Law, a copy of which I this day enclose you.

“You will see that by this law the recording of mines and mineral lands are thrown into the hands of the Clerks of Probate. My hope before the meeting of the Legislature was that by the Judge's (Mining) law, the Clerks of the District Courts were to be the Recorders of Mines, and ex-officio clerks of the Probate Court, which, if so arranged, would in time be a good and paying office, but the Legislature looked at it in this wise, and I cannot but see that they are right.

"The Clerks of the District Courts hold their office under the Government and consequently cannot hold the office of Recorder or Clerk of the Probate Court, they being selected by the county as in the States.

“The times set for holding the next District Courts are as follows: At La Paz on the second Monday in February, 1865; at Prescott on the second Monday in March, and at Tucson on the second Monday in April.

“The location of the Capital is unsettled, the vote taken being a tie in both houses.

“A bill was passed to raise $80,000 in gold on Territory Bonds to pay for the raising six companies of rangers to exterminate the Apaches, the Gov., King Woolsey and John Capron being appointed commissioners to negotiate the bonds in California. The Governor is expected here this month en route for California. I hope and pray Judge Howell will return soon. My office will not pay me and I must seek something else. There was no court held here this fall, and will not be before April. Everything is very high here, and a person who has no employment fares hard. I doubt if my clothes which I brought from the States will hold out until I receive those mentioned in your last. The first opportunity that offers I think I shall go to work. There is none here or in the vicinity. On the Rio Grande or Colorado I may get something. Tucson is a deserted and played out town, all communication cut off, etc. Will say no more about it. I often read your letter of Aug. 29th in which you speak of what a good chance I could have had in Penn., but I am not alone to blame. Will write mother and the girls

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