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and, invariably, some animals would be missing. Another killing occurred at Antelope Hill in 1863. Some California miners had lost their burros, and not being able to find them, the Indians were accused of stealing them. The miners attacked the Indians, and killed about twenty of them in revenge for the supposed stealing of four burros. It turned out that the animals had not been stolen, as they were found within a mile of

the camp.

After these murders no Indians came into the camps, but would steal every animal left unguarded, and for ten years innocent men, women and children paid the penalty of these rash, unjust and cowardly acts. At first the Indians were poorly armed, but as they succeeded in killing the whites, they got possession of guns and pistols, and, at times, considerable quantities of ammunition fell into their hands.

In December, 1863, three Mexicans went out from Weaver to gather grass as was their custom (Hamilton, “Resources of Arizona, p. 389). They had one gun and a pistol. While at work they were surprised to find themselves surrounded by Apaches, armed with guns, bows and arrows. One of the Indians, accosting the man who had the pistol, said in fair Spanish: My friend, give me your pistol,” which was done. Then he said: “We already have your gun, and are driving your burros away to better feed. Now strip off and give us your clothes.'' This order was obeyed, and the Indians, dividing the clothes, put them on. There were eleven of them. They danced around and shouted for a while, when one of the Mexicans said: “Well, if you are going to kill us, do so and make an end of it." The leader of the party answered: We are not going to hurt you; a dead Mexican is of no use.

You may go back to town and get money, and this winter you will go to Sonora and bring us some more burros, or, perhaps, some mules, in the spring. We consider you our friends. Good-by." The Mexicans got back to town in the costume of the Greek slave.

A man called “Hog” Johnson, was out about three miles from Weaver, hunting deer. Seeing some deer, he tied his horse, crept up some distance, and shot one of them. He cut off its head, took out its entrails, and prepared to load it on his horse. He started back for his horse, and when about halfway, he heard a yell and saw four Indians on the hillside, out of rifle range, going off with his horse. Just then he heard something behind him. Turning around, he saw four Indians, each with a quarter of the deer on his shoulder. He sat down on a rock and watched them load the deer on his horse and start off. Three years later, while mining alone near Antelope Hill, Johnson was killed by Mohave-Apaches.

In the winter of 1863–64, J. T. Alsap, S. C. Miller and Con Moore started from Granite Creek to the placers on Lynx Creek. They stopped upon the mesa to cut grass for their horses, using their butcher knives. While thus employed they were attacked by a band of Apaches, who stampeded their horses and opened fire upon them. The party ran to the nearest timber a few rods distant where they kept the foe at bay for an hour or two, when they ran for an old cabin near by. Miller had received a bullet wound just above the knee, but made no mention of it as it might discourage the others. On reaching the cabin, a kind of half dugout, they defended themselves until some miners, hearing the firing, came to their relief. Three or four Indians were killed.

According to Hamilton (“Resources of Arizona, p. 383), the first settler killed in Northern Arizona was by a large band of Tonto Apaches, who came in from the southwest, and in the big canyon of the Hassayampa, killed three miners. Continuing their course toward

. Weaver, they attacked a party of a dozen Mexicans who were moving from the town to Walnut Grove to engage in farming. They killed five of them. This was on the 11th of March, 1864. In the same month Mr. Goodhue and four others were attacked by Indians between the Hassayampa and Granite Creek. Goodhue was killed, and the others succeeded in driving the Indians off. The Indians also attacked a train of wagons near Weaver, and mortally wounded Mr. Rykman and a Mexican. The Indians took all the stock and plundered the wagons.

In April, 1864, a Mexican was herding a dozen head of cattle in Walnut Grove. One afternoon he shot a rabbit and on going to pick it up, before reloading his gun, found himself surrounded by Indians, who stood within ten feet of him. Some of them took the gun and rabbit while others drove off the stock. (Hamilton, “Resources of Arizona,” p. 390.) They then marched him across the valley in the same direction as the cattle were going, for a mile, pricking him with arrows. On reaching the hills they stopped, gave him the rabbit, and motioned him to go home, laughing, hooting and pointing their fingers at him in the meanwhile.

In 1863 and 1864, practically all the troops were withdrawn from Arizona. The southern part of the Territory and its valleys and farms, as we have seen, was depopulated, the Americans gathering in and around Tucson for protection, where there was a small guard of soldiers, consequently everything was comparatively quiet on the southern border. While engaged in the erection of buildings in Prescott, the workmen carried arms for protection, and it was dangerous at any time to venture alone beyond the town limits.

Early in January, 1864, twenty-eight head of stock was stolen from the corral of Messrs. Peeples and Dye on the Antelope ranch, twelve miles north of Weaver. From Granite Creek sixteen head were taken. King S. Woolsey lost thirty-three head from the Agua Fria ranch. The miners in the vicinity lost many animals, and were almost destitute of transportation. In consequence of the killing which occurred at Walnut Grove, and other murders, and the above stealing, it was determined to send a party into the Indians' country which resulted in the organization of a party by King S. Woolsey, who followed the Indians to the Bloody Tanks where many of their chiefs were killed, in what was afterwards known as the “Pinole Treaty, an account of which has been given in a preceding volume, and the Indians' account of the same will be found on another page of this volume. After this fight Woolsey was appointed Aide on the staff of Governor Goodwin, with the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel and was given authority to organize an expedition to go into the Indian country, killing the hostiles wherever found. Woolsey's official report to the Governor of his first expedition was printed in the “Arizona Miner" in September, 1864, and is as follows:

Prescott, Arizona, August 28, 1864. “To His Excellency, John N. Goodwin, Gov

ernor of Arizona Territory. “Sir:

“I have the honor to report that my Command consisting of 93 men (citizens) left the Agua Fria ranch about 6 p. m., June 1, and arrived at Fisher's Cienega at one o'clock the following morning, distance 15 miles, course N. 69 deg. East. A small party of Indians were encamped in this cienega but escaped in the dark. There are fine springs at this cienega, which is upon the Chavez wagon road, and will be a prominent point should that road prove a success.

On the morning of the 2nd, we marched in the same general direction by way of Copper Canyon to the Rio Verde, distance ten miles. The trail down is rough, but readily made by

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