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called 'Signal' mountain, but were unable to reach the top in the darkness, it being very precipitous, and we lay down until daylight. We found a trail to the top and passed over the southern end of the mountain. We followed it to a rancheria, (upon which we came unexpectedly to ourselves) and so suddenly that the Indians fled leaving behind their bows and arrows and their fire burning. After hunting around for two or three hours without finding the Indians, we proceeded northward and at noon arrived at a stream flowing easterly, which we named Sycamore Creek. This creek we followed about 12 miles to its mouth, finding Indian corn and wheat fields all the way. At the mouth of the Creek, the Salt River flows southward for some miles and then turns to the west. Three or four Indians appeared upon the hills and hallooed to us on our arrival at Salt River, and after a time I succeeded in having a talk with one who represented himself to be a 'captain.' He refused, however, to approach nearer than 200 or 300 yards. We crossed the Salt River here and followed the left bank down about six miles when the stream canyoned and we were obliged to climb the mountains. It was dark when we reached the top and we followed an Indian trail over the rough ground in a southerly direction. After several miles we turned westwardly and at 11 o'clock p. m. we came upon a fine stream of water. Here we camped for the night, hearing Indians all around but seeing none. The morning light revealed a beautiful valley covered with corn and wheat fields. The creek was named Pinal Creek. It runs northerly and empties into Salt River near the great bend above mentioned. Soon after daylight, the Indian fires commenced blazing on the hilltops and the Indians began hallooing at us. One appeared to be the leader. He approached near enough to talk to us and I invited him and his people to visit us at our camp on Salt River, which he promised he and they would do the next day.

“We followed Pinal Creek down to its mouth and then proceeded down Salt River to camp, which we reached about sundown. We waited all the next day for our expected visitors, but they did not come, though their fires blazed continuously on the hills north of the river. On the following day I determined to move camp to Pinal Creek and after detaching fifteen men to meet the pack train, we started, reaching our old camp at sundown. The road from Grapevine Springs is for about ten miles, southeast to some springs and tanks, and then turning east for about five miles where it reaches Pinal Creek at our camping grounds, which is about three miles from a road around a mountain peak which we called Cupola Peak (from camp N. 65 deg. east).

“The morning after our arrival a few squaws came into camp and inquired our intentions and were told we were hungry and wanted wheat. The whole command was at the same time engaged in cutting and threshing wheat, and our horses and mules were feeding. The next day a few Indians came in with a flag of truce (a white rag tied to a cross) bringing an interpreter with them. We had a long talk and numbers of them continued to visit us until the arrival of our pack train. Until then I had thought it best to be friendly with them, although it was evident that on one occasion they came with the intention of taking our scalps, but found that we were too well prepared for them. From the arrival of the pack train on the eighth day but few Indians visited us. After allowing the pack animals one day's rest, we again began our march, starting at 6 a. m. on the morning of July 4, following the creek to its head in the Pinal Mountains, the highest peak of which was situated south 29 deg. east, about thirty miles distant from camp at the wheat fields. We found gold at the head of the creek, but not in paying quantities, and some good looking quartz lodes. The water raises in this creek about two miles above our camp, and from that to the mountain, we found water only in springs and tanks. We camped on the top of Pinal mountain and from its highest peak the following observations were taken:

Tonto peak, N. 60 deg. 30 deg. W.; Needles, N. 86 deg. W.; Casa Blanca, near Pimo, S. 70 deg. West and Picacho, S. 7 deg. West. We remained at this camp throughout the day of our arrival, our hunters keeping us well supplied with venison and turkey. Eighteen men left the party and returned by way of Pimo. I sent out a party to prospect for mineral on the south side of this mountain, but they returned without finding any. We moved camp to the foot of the mountain on the east side, at some tanks, and the next day reached the San Carlos River, a distance of 25 miles. There is no water upon this trail for this distance, it being all the way down a dry arroyo, N. 60 deg. East. We found an Indian corn field and bean patch upon the San Carlos. The corn was not yet fit to eat, but the beans were just ripe for snaps and we made much of them. The next day we moved down the San Carlos to the Gila River, distant about ten miles, and thence by easy marches up the Gila to the new Ft. Goodwin, distant about thirty miles. We camped on the Gila about three miles from the Fort, which is situated on a stream called the 'Pulerosa' and immediately reported to Col. Rigg, First Infantry, California Volunteers, commanding. He issued rations to my command and it was agreed between us that I should proceed up the country to the Black River and prospect the district, also looking for the Indians and that I should return across by the heads of the Bonito and San Carlos to our old camp on Pinal Creek and there join Maj. Thomas J. Blakeney's command and with it operate against the Apaches in the vicinity of that creek and Signal mountain, on the north side of Salt River. I left Ft. Goodwin on the morning of the 15th day of July and proceeded up the Gila River, about thirty-five miles to a point near the Pueblo Viejo. Leaving the river here I struck across the mountain divide to a stream called 'Bonito,' striking it as I supposed about ten miles from its mouth. The Bonito is a small stream forty to fifty miles in length, heading in a range of lava hills running through a lava formation for its whole length in a southerly direction, emptying into the Gila about 45 miles above Ft. Goodwin. I think we struck the Black River 14 miles above its mouth. About thirty miles above, the Canyon opens into a fine valley of several miles in length, containing at least 10,000 acres of fine tillable land, surrounded by low rolling hills covered with excellent grass. There were about 20 acres of Indian corn in the valley, but we saw no Indians. The day before we reached this valley, a Yaqui squaw, about ten years of age, came into our camp. She had been a captive among the Apaches and had just made her escape. She came in with us and is now at my Agua Fria ranch. From the head of this valley I made an effort to pass the mountain to the eastward, but did not succeed in finding a point where I could pass with the pack train, and was obliged to return to the river and continue up it twenty miles further to where the stream forks, one fork coming from the eastward and the other from the northwest. Upon examination here, it was found that the water raised in both streams as far as about one mile from camp.

I reached this point on the 23rd day of July, and as I had promised Col. Rigg that I would join Major Blakeney at Pinal Creek on the 30th, it was necessary to turn in that direction to keep the appointment. A portion of the command was not satisfied that this stream was the Black River, and were desirous of going further east to look for it. I, therefore, detached Mr. P. McCannon

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