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up. The Indians who lived in the vicinity of Camp Date Creek were inclined to be peaceable with the soldiers, but they could not tell the soldiers so, as there was no good interpreter to be had in those days.

“At last those two men who had the whisky shop had a fire and their cabin was burned up and they were burned up in it. The soldiers got some of the Indians and went down there to try and find out who had done the killing and burning. They could not find any tracks of men, or anything to show that it was done by a raiding party. The Indians scouted around far in the mountains, but could not see any tracks. The commanding officer, however, had a strong suspicion that it had been done by the Yumas, and all the Indians were called together under the pretense that the soldiers wanted to make a treaty with them."

CHAPTER XIII.

INDIAN TROUBLES (Continued).
MIKE BURNS' STORY OF “THE PINOLE TREATY”—

PIMAS AND MARICOPAS DECEIVE THE WHITES
-GIVE APACHES BAD NAME-APACHE Bow
AND ARROW MAKING — FIGHT WITH SOL-
DIERS BETWEEN FLORENCE AND McDoWELL-

INDIAN OPINION OF SOLDIERS AS FIGHTERS. “This great treachery to the Mohave-Apaches was told me by an Indian by the name of Kwanga-cuma-ma, meaning ‘Hitting Head,' or 'Chicken Neck,' which name he bears to this day.

“There were camps of all kinds of Apaches, some having just arrived from beyond where the Roosevelt Dam now is, from what is called by the Mexicans Sierra Anchas.' We Mohaves call those mountains 'Ewee-tha-quaw-wai,' which means “Wide Ranges of Rocks.' These were Tonto-Mohaves, we being related to the Tontos, and their roaming ground was from Four Peaks along the Matazal ranges, the Tonto Basin in beyond Payson to the Sierra Anchas. When the tropical fruits ripen they come over to the Superstition Mountains, and along the Salt River Valley.

“They camped on the rim of a row of ranges between the Superstitions and what is called Fish Creek. The camps were in four distinct parts, a few miles from each other, but the middle one contained the most in number, and above near to the top of a mountain was a large camp, that of the big chief, Delacha. Some parties were out hunting deer, and some were out catching rabbits or rats. They were only armed with bows and arrows. They left their camps without fear of meeting enemies because they had never harmed anybody only once in a while some parties would go out to steal ponies which they needed for food.

“Some of the parties returned and said that they had seen some armed horsemen down the valley, and that they knew there were some Pimas and Maricopas with them because when they were in hearing distance some of the Indians had called to them saying that they were out to make a treaty with all of the people in the country and that they need not be afraid; that they were to come to the camp without arms, and they were assured they would not be molested; that the soldiers had brought all sorts of articles to give the Indians as presents, so as to assure them of their friendship. When all of the hunting parties returned, word was sent around to the other camps. Some of the Indians were in favor of going to make the treaty with the soldiers, saying that they were getting very tired of hiding out in the hills and always having to be on the watch lest their enemies jump them in their sleep, so they thought it was getting time when they could be at rest, and they did get rest, too. They said they wished to be at peace with everybody and get rest and quiet, and those men have never seen another day from that time.

“Some of the Indians went to the chief's camp and told him about the soldiers and the Pimas and Maricopas, who were also accompanied by two Yuma-Apaches. The Maricopas took the two Yuma-Apaches along in order to be able to pretend that all the other Indians had been

treated all right, and these two Indians were used to persuade the Mohaves to come in and be good people, and have plenty to eat and all the clothing they needed. The Tonto-Apaches came to one of the camps and talked at length, and said that as they had been among the Mohaves all their lives, they were willing to go and see what the soldiers and other Indians had to say to them; that even if it were a trap they were willing to take the punishment with the rest of the people. These Tonto-Apaches were two, father-in-law and son-in-law, and it is said that they both wore buckskin shirts and pants, decorated with brass buttons. Many of the men were willing to go down, but the big chief, DelaCha, stood over on a rocky point shouting to those who were already seated close to where the soldiers were, telling them that it was all foolishness to believe that those Pimas and Maricopas came to his country to meet them and make a treaty of friendship; that they had always been his enemies, and so had the soldiers, as they had never kept any of their promises, and he told these Indians that they would be lucky if any of them ever came out of there alive. He said: “For me, where I am standing now, is close enough for me.'

“Just then an old man who had been away from the camp for a day or two came in, and noticed the excitement of everybody, old and young, in the camp, and asked them what the trouble was, and some one told him the news, and also told him that three of his sons had gone out with the parties to visit the soldiers. When he had learned all of the news the women asked him to rest a little and have something to eat. He said: 'I need nothing to eat now.

I am go

ing down to where my sons are and will die with them before the sun goes over the hills, and there is no use to eat.' When he was told that those who went down to have the council with the soldiers and the Pimas and Maricopas were told not to take with them any arms of any kind, he said: "Those people are my enemies and I am going down there with my bow and arrows on me, and I am going to protect myself. Those who went down there without arms are foolish, as foolish as a child.'

“But one man came out of that massacre alive. He was living here until about three years ago, when he died, over a hundred years old. He received three bullet wounds in the massacre but recovered from them. He was the one who told me about the affair. His name was Way-ga-thy-match-jah, or 'Lean to him a woman,' but afterwards he was called Maw-wotta-ot-gau, 'A small round looking flour.' He was named that at the San Carlos Agency where many Indians came to receive rations of sugar, coffee, beef, beans and flour. He must have been given a very small sack of flour. He only drew rations for himself and wife, and many of the others drew for large families, so his rations were very small.

Maw-wot-ta-ot-gau was in the first party which went to meet the soldiers and he was given two pails and shown down towards the creek, so that he understood that he was to get some water, so he went and brought in water twice. More Indians came in and then he noticed that the soldiers were going away in twos and threes, having their blankets under their arms, and then he heard from the hills that the soldiers were getting ready to surround the Indians, and

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