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had assisted in that massacre. This goes to show that all the outrages on the Indians were not done by the soldiers, but by the first white men who came into the country, some of them being the volunteers from California.

“None of the Indians had been wounded or killed in these last fights, and they decided to return to their homes. Near Pine Flat they found a few head of cattle and drove them across the Agua Fria, and killed them. Packing the meat on their backs they went to the Bloody Basin country, and crossed the Verde River, and in a couple of days they were at home again.

“This little sketch of history about what was done to the Indians by the soldiers, and the first killing of the Apaches by the Pimas and Maricopas, shows the way the Apaches were subdued. The Pimas and Maricopas were the Indians who lived in the valley of the Gila and the valley of the Salt River, and they were the first Indians in Arizona to meet the white man, and it was supposed that they were friendly to everybody, but they certainly were not to the Apaches. The Pimas and Maricopas massacred the Apaches many times, killing them in the night; then they would always run, even if there were three or four hundred of them. Apaches always called the Pimas crows, because they would dance around and dodge from one place to another until they were out of sight. But they were very brave when three or four hundred of them came across a few old men and women and children. They would attack them and beat their heads to a jelly and not let one escape alive. For my part I think the Pima and Maricopa Indians are the most cowardly of the Indians of the southwest. But credit should be given to the

Apache. He has stood his ground and preserved his home and his family for a long period of years, creeping from one mountain to another in the night, hiding from his enemies, until he could creep up on some sleeping soldiers, killing some and driving off a few head

of horses. Then he was denounced as a 'Bloodthirsty Apache.' There is always a time in the history of man when the duty of protecting himself and his family is imposed upon him; a time when there has been so much wrong done to him that he would not be a man if he did not make an effort to protect himself, his family and his home from his enemies.

I am an Apache Indian, and I take the stand now and always have, that the Apache is a brave man. They were not a very numerous people, but they preferred to be exterminated rather than submit to injustices or to be taken captives, and they would hold out until the last arrow was shot, or their bows broken, then they would have nothing left to fight with but their hands, and they would rather have them cut off than live to see their country taken away from them. The soldiers were not their only enemies; there were many Indian aliens who fought with the soldiers, such as the Pimas, the Maricopas, the Yuma-Apaches, the Mohaves on the Colorado, the Wallapais and the Navajos. In addition to these there were the Mexicans and the volunteers from California. The regular soldiers who were stationed at Fort McDowell, Camp Date Creek, Camp Wickenburg, Camp Del Rio, Fort Whipple, Camp Verde, Fort Reno, Fort Thonias, Fort Grant, and, right in the center of the White Mountain Apaches, Fort Apache; Fort Bowie, Fort Lowell near Tucson, Fort Huachucha, Fort

Yuma and Fort Mohave, also were the enemies of the Indians, and came to fight the friendless Apache. There were thousands of white men to fight the Apaches, but they had to hire many thousands of Indians to show the soldiers through the Apache country and help track the Apaches, and also to show the soldiers the paths and waterholes. If the soldiers had not had the assistance of the other Indians to fight the Apaches, they would have had a very hard time fighting them. The only way they could get the best of them was to get them to come in on the pretense that the Government wanted to make peace with them, and that they must come in and make a treaty and meet the soldiers without arms, and when the soldiers got them into the camp, they would make good Indians of them by dropping them when they were sitting around on the ground. The soldiers did not like to go out and hunt them in the woods and stand the hard times; sometimes they could not find water for themselves or their animals; sometimes they would be out in the hills and get into some rough country where they could not go any farther and would have to go back the same way they came. The soldiers did very little harm to the Indians. Once in the winter of 1872, the soldiers passed right by a camp of Indians on a thick flat of cedar; it was snowing and the wind was blowing right into the soldiers' faces. They never looked down on the ground to see if there were any tracks of the Indians, and went right on by. They always had to have Indians to guide them and to fight the Apaches in their style, and also to find them waterholes. Only for the aid of the Indians the soldiers were worth nothing.




MARICOPAS ATTACK ON SOLDIERS. “In the year 1869 several hundred Indians came to Fort McDowell to make a treaty with the soldiers. They were mostly from the ranges of the Four Peaks and the Matazal Mountains, and also from the Tonto Basin, the country of the Tontos. The Tontos always went with the Mohave-Apaches, being always willing to risk their lives with them. I remember one incident in connection with this. My grandfather was so old that he could hardly see the way to walk, and I had to go with him to lead him. We had one big dog which would always kill little game and even catch young deer or fawn. On our way to the camp where there was a great council to be held, we had nothing to eat, and my grandfather killed my poor old dog which always caught rabbits and young deer for our sustenance. He said that it couldn't be helped, that we had to live on something. · So he told me to get wood while he was digging a hole after he had skinned the dog, and after I got the wood I had to get

could escape.

some stones and grass, some green grass and green brush, and he made a fire and put some stones on it. Then he waited until the fire burned down to the level of the hole, and then put my dog on the hot stones and covered him all up with the grass and brush so that no steam

We then went to sleep and towards morning we woke up and uncovered the little mound where the dog was, and found it well cooked. My grandfather gave me all I wanted, and we could not tell the difference between the dog's flesh and that of any other animal. We had all we wanted to eat that morning, and plenty to take along for that day until we reached the camp, which we did towards morning. That night there was a great crowd at the camp, and they danced almost all night, and a few days afterwards they all moved off towards Fort McDowell, I was among them, but I was so young that I can hardly remember anything about it. I can remember, however, that soine Indians, men and women, brought in some gramma grass on their backs and took it to the soldiers' stables, and the soldiers gave the Indians a cup of corn for each bunch of gramma grass. The hay must have been worth but very little at that time, for each bundle of green gramma hay must have weighed from seventyfive to eighty-five pounds, and the Indians only got a cup of corn for each bundle of hay. A cup full would not weigh more than a couple of pounds, it being measured with a soldiers' tin quart cup.

“Everything seemed very friendly at this place, the Indians having dances every night. The camp was across the Verde River, and some

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