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that, if the last word be omitted, it is no longer a sentence.

Q. 13. What is a balanced sentence?


A balanced sentence is a compound sentence with two main clauses so constructed that each word in the first clause is balanced by a word in the second. Q. 14. When is it proper to use a semicolon in a simple or complex sentence?


Never. If they are required by the law of gradation, the sentence is ill-constructed and should be rewritten.

Q. 15. In a compound sentence?


Between the main clauses when these are not connected by a coördinate conjunction.

Q. 16. When is a compound sentence periodic?
Never, except when it contains correlatives.


Q. 17. When is it proper to use one comma between the

subject and verb



Q. 18. Between the verb and object?

A. Never.

Q. 19. Why?


Q. 22.


Because of Corollary 3 of the fundamental law of punctuation, which requires that words which are grammatically united shall not be separated by marks of punctuation.

Q. 20. When is it proper to use two commas between the subject and verb, or verb and object?


When a parenthetical expression intervenes.

Q. 21. State the rule for the agreement of subject and



The subject and verb should agree in number and person.

What do adverbs modify?

Verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs.

Q. 23. What caution must be exercised in the use of the

definite article?


It must never be used unless the object to which its noun refers has been identified by previous discussion, is followed by a restrictive phrase or clause, or is the only object of its kind in existence.

Q. 24. What caution must be exercised in the use of coördinate conjunctions?


They should always connect words, phrases, or clauses of the same class.

Q. 25. What is the rule for punctuating words in a series? A. Do it thus: "Tom, Dick, and Harry."

Q. 26. What is the rule for punctuating two or more adjectives preceding the same noun?


If they are of the same class, separate them by commas; if of different classes, do not separate them. "Never burden one noun with more than one adjective" is a still better rule.

Q. 27. What is a restrictive clause?


Q. 28.


How may a restrictive clause be recognized?

By the fact that, if omitted, its absence will reduce the sentence to nonsense.

Q. 29. Why should a restrictive clause not be set off by a


A restrictive clause is a clause that narrows, limits, lessens, or restricts the number of objects to which its antecedent can refer.

Q. 31. A.

Q. 30. What is a dangling participle?



Because of Corollary 3 of the fundamental law of punctuation, which requires that words which are grammatically united shall not be separated by marks of punctuation.

A dangling participle is a participle that, agreeing with nothing, so to speak, dangles in the air.

What is a cleft or split infinitive?

A cleft infinitive is an infinitive in which the "to" has been separated by a word or words from the verb.



"Read, mark, learn, and inwardly digest.'

I. Introduction

DESCRIPTION, narration, exposition, and argumentation are the four kinds of composition. You have already used all of them in the exercises which precede this chapter. For the purpose of understanding them more thoroughly, we shall now study each of them by itself.

Description is based on the five senses. Anything that you can see, hear, feel, smell, or taste can be described.

Narration is story-telling. It often includes description, from which it differs as a picture-play differs from ordinary pictures.

Exposition is explanation. It may include description and narration, but it goes deeper. Its aim is to explain the nature of things.

Argumentation is designed to persuade people to think and act as the speaker or writer wishes. It is the most difficult form of composition, as it includes all of the others, and requires close reasoning. We shall merely mention it in this book.

II. Exercises for Oral Discussion

1. Find examples of description, narration, exposition, and argumentation in the preceding chapters.

2. Are the books which you like best descriptive, expository, narrative, or argumentative? 3. Mention one book which is chiefly descriptive, one which is chiefly narrative, one which is chiefly expository, and one which is chiefly argumentative.

4. Find in a current paper examples of each of the four kinds of writing.

III. Memorize


Hast thou named all the birds without a gun?
Loved the wood-rose, and left it on its stalk?
At rich men's tables eaten bread and pulse?
Unarmed, faced danger with a heart of trust?
And loved so well a high behavior,

In man or maid, that thou from speech refrained,
Nobility more nobly to repay?

O be my friend, and teach me to be thine!




"Simonides called painting silent poetry, and poetry speaking painting."

I. Problem

To paint in words a picture.

II. Model


Hills and fields were covered with glittering snow; the sky wore the rosy garment of sunrise. There I saw three hunters, who stood beneath a tall oak. The larger limbs of the trees bore a heavy load of snow; the smaller were decorated with frost. The costumes of the hunters were light green in color, which was set off by big white buttons. At their feet lay a stag, whose red blood stained the white snow. Three dark-brown dogs sat around the body and permitted their red tongues to hang out longingly. CARL SCHURZ, A School Composition, Lebenserrinerungen.

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III. Notes and Queries

1. Carl Schurz wrote this description when he was

a boy. It was included by his teacher, Heinrich
Bone, in a reader which, up to 1900, had passed
through fifty-three editions. Perhaps you can
write one equally good.

2. Write a biographical note of one hundred words
on Carl Schurz.

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