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which he takes delight, and hence, through improved imagination and taste, toward a higher stage of intellectual enjoyment.
No pains have been spared to make the illustrations and exercises apposite, ample, entertaining, and authoritative. As to manner, a chief anxiety has been to avoid colorless and unattractive statement a mere aggregation of rules or interpretation of law. 'In general,' says Quintilian, ‘bare treatises on art, through too much affectation of subtlety, break and cut down whatever is noble in eloquence; drink up all the blood of thought, and lay bare the bones, which, while they ought to exist and to be united by their ligaments, ought still to be covered with flesh.'
A treatise on such a language as ours must, to be valuable, be indebted to much that has preceded it in literary research. The author, while travelling in his own way over old ground, has been continually taught and influenced by his predecessors-Dr. Blair, Lord Campbell, Archbishop Whately, Dr. Bascom, James De Mille, Professor A. S. Hill, Professor Alexander Bain, and others. 'It would have been ridiculous in Bonifacio,' says Ruskin, to refuse to employ Titian's way of laying on color, if he feit it the best, because he had not himself discovered it.' 'The greatest,' he adds, 'is he who has been oftenest aided.' A. H. W.
Columbus, O., July 10, 1885.
METHODS OF EXPRESSION - SUPPLEMENTARY AIDS
(CAPITALIZATION AND PUNCTUATION)
COMPREHENSION AND UTILITY.
A youth who would the Olympic honors gain,
The wise in heart shall be called prudent, but the sweetness of the lips increaseth learning.- SOLOMON.
OU are about to begin a course of rhetorical discipline. You cannot, it is manifest, be made adequately to comprehend at once notions which the study itself is intended to enable you to understand; but it is desirable that you should be enabled to form at least some vague conception of the road that you are to travel and of the point to which it will conduct you.
In these days of paper and print, when the mind is reached chiefly through the medium of the eye, rhetoric asks not, as formerly, whether you are to be a poet, a scientist, or a debater, but simply whether it is your wish to be put in the right way of communicating yourself with power to others. Expression of thought in language is regarded, in all its varieties, as one department, governed by the same fundamental principles. Theoretically and practically, rhetoric has reference to the mode, rather than to the material, of expression. Form and substance, indeed, coexist in mutual dependence, and to know the laws of the one we must consider the nature of the other;
but wherein they are separable, the first is here the special and dominant topic of inquiry.
It has been customary to divide the arts into fine, elegant, or liberal; and useful, mechanical, or practical: the design of the first being to refine the higher faculties, and thus to afford a larger amount of a more elevated kind of enjoyment; of the second, to qualify a human being to act the part of a dexterous instrument. If for convenience we admit the division, rhetoric evidently has the character of both classes. But the distinction is essentially superficial; for, with the progress of civilization, there is a progressive union of the useful and the beautiful; while, with the growth of a more spiritual view of human destiny, whatever is conducive to the highest education of the noblest powers is held to be of preeminent use. The rhetorician may, therefore, cheerfully profess himself a utilitarian, and, on the special ground of its utility, claim for his art its peculiar importance.
Every art is closely allied to one or more sciences which furnish the principles that govern and explain it. In making harmony between matter and manner, and using both to secure worthy ends, rhetoric subsidizes Grammar, which unites words in correct construction; and Logic, which tests the validity of the reasoning. In so far as it expresses moral states, or aims to excite them, it is related to Ethics. It is allied to Esthetics by conformity with the laws of taste-the great moderator that wars against excess. But it does not properly embrace these in their integrity. It does not assume into itself purely scientific investigations and discussions of them. It takes their laws as settled and applies them, where there is occasion, to its own purposes. Since thought is now conveyed far more frequently by the pen than by the voice, Elocution is but accidentally subsidiary. The two arts should be separated, because (1) their modes of training are different;