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Place of the Two Shrines. See Santa Clara Valley.
Placer County, name and origin of, 316.
Placerville, formerly mining town, “Hangtown,'' 224, 231.
Plaza Church of Los Angeles, foundation of, 127.
Plumas County, name and origin of, 316.
Point Reyes, 67; Indians of, 41.
Polk, President, accepts verdict against Frémont, but remits the sen-

tence, 271.
Population, of California, in 1800, 137; in 1848, 280; of Los Angeles in

1800, 138; of Los Angeles in 1905, 302; of San José in 1800, 138.
Porciuncula River at Los Angeles, 126.
Portilla, Pablo de, his march against Governor Victoria, 174-176; joins

Carrillo's conspiracy, 179.
Portola, Gaspar de, march to Alta California, 63; arrival at San Diego,

64, 117; expedition in search of Monterey, 65-67; discovers San
Francisco Bay, 67; returns to San Diego, 68; relief sent from Spain
and his second expedition and arrival at Monterey, 69-72; governor

of California, 103, 119-120; his part in expulsion of the Jesuits, 120.
Portsmouth, U. S. ship, at Yerba Buena, 203, 205.
Posesion, Isla de, called La Isla de Juan Rodriguez, 53.
Poverty Flat, mining camp, 224.
Powder, amount used in building railroad across the Sierra, 287-288.
Prat, Pedro, surgeon of San Carlos, 63.
Presidios, San Carlos, “Royal presidio,' 72; foundation of Monterey,

72, 101; San Francisco, 80; Santa Barbara, 85; provision for govern.

ment of, 124; condition of and Arrillago's improvements of, 138.
Price, Rodman, 356.
Privateers. See Buenos Ayres insurgents.
Proclamation, Commodore Sloat's on raising American flag, 240-243.
Prudon, Victor, 192.
Pueblo de las Canoas, 49.
Pueblos, Governor de Neve's reglamento as to, 124; foundation of San

José, 124; foundation of Los Angeles, 125-126; instructions to Gov.
ernor de Neve to erect, 125; solars, building lots in, 126; Governor
Arrillaga's report on condition of, 129; during Mexican rule, 153.

157; Dana's description of, 153-155.
Puente, Marques de Villa, account of, 326-328.
Puget, Peter, in Monterey harbor, 132.
Purisima mission. See La Purisima mission.

"Queen of the Missions." See San Gabriel mission.
Quentin, sub-chief of the Licatiut tribe, 314.
Quivira, 39.

Railroads in California, in 1868, 281-282; Central Pacific, 282-293; Santa

Fé, 293-294; Las Vegas and Tonopah, 297; Salt Lake, 295-297;

Union Pacific, 290; Western Pacific, 295.
Ramirez, José, 180.
Ramirez, Pedro, correspondence in regard to Pious Fund, 336-337, 338.
Reclamation of Deserts, area of irrigated territory, 297; cost of irriga-

tion yearly, 298; Imperial Valley, 298.
Reglamento, Governor de Neve's, 124.
Religious service, first Christian in California, 35; first Roman Catholic,

in California, 39.
Republic of California. See Bear Flag Revolution.

Revere, Joseph Warren, 206-207.
Rezanoff, N. P. de, in California, his betrothal to Concepcion Arguello

and his death, 140-144.
Ridley, Robert, captain of the port of Yerba Buena, 202.
Riley, Bennet, governor of California, 272-273.
Rivera y Moncado, Fernando de, at' San Diego 64; on expedition in

search of Monterey, 66-67; authority to make land grants given,
121; excommunicated and appeal to Serra, 122; quarrel with Anza,

122-123.
Riverside, 13; original orange tree in, 299.
Riverside County, name and origin of, 316.
Roca, José, 133.
Rocker, as mining appliance, 228.
Rocky Mountain survey, Frémont sent to make, 195.
Rodriguez, Juan, 49.
Rogers, Woodes, voyage of, 37.
Romeu, José Antonio, governor of California, uneventful administration

of, 128-129; illness and death, 128-129.
Roosevelt, Theodore, transplanting of "original orange tree" by, 299.
Ross, Fort, Alexander Kofkoff in charge, 146.
Rover, Boston schooner, arrival in Monterey, 163.
Royal chapel. See San Carlos mission.
Royal presidio. See Monterey presidio.
Royal road. See El Camino Real.
Rubidoux Mountain, cross erected in memory of Serra on, 13; greeting

from John Muir, 13.
Russians, M. de Rezanoff in California, 139-140; Governor Arrillaga's

attitude toward, 140-141; at Fort Bodega, 145, 162; Luis Antonio
Arguello's letter to Governor Sola against, 146; San Rafael and
San Francisco Solano missions established as barriers to, 145-146;

Governor Arguello's bargain with traders, 162; trade with, 280.
Sacramento, distributing point for the mines, 224, 231; capital of Cali-

fornia, 273-274.
Sacramento County, name and origin of, 316.
Saint Joseph, patron saint of California, 63.
Sal, Hermenegildo, 129.
Salazar, Father, 319.
Salinas River, 76.
Salt Lake, Captain Jedediah Smith at, 167, 170.
Salt Lake Railroad, 295; projectors of, 296; scenic beauties of, 296; Las

Vegas and Tonapah, branch of, 297.
Salvatierra, Father Juan Maria, authority given to, to undertake the

conversion of California, 324; in Mexico, 330; in Lower California,

330-331.
San Antonio, ship, sails for California, 63; at Monterey, 101.
San Antonio de Padua mission, foundation of, 76-77; Indians at, 76-77.
San Benito County, name and origin of, 316-317.
San Benito Valley, San Juan Bautista mission in, 91.
San Bernardino, Captain Jedediah Smith at, 170.
San Bernardino County, name and origin of, 317.
San Bernardino Mountains, legend of Arrowhead, 10-12.
San Blas, port of, necessity of keeping open, urged by Serra, 352.
San Buenaventura County. See Ventura County.
San Buenaventura, battle of, 179.

San Buenaventura mission, site selected, 59; foundation of, 84; estab-

lishment delayed, 350.
San Carlos mission, site selected, 59; foundation of, 72, 73, 101; Indians

around, and Serra's work with, 73-74; removal to Carmel, 73-74;
scenery of new site, 74-75; death of Father Serra at, 87; “Serra's
tree'' in Royal Chapel, 102; Royal Chapel, 103; relics in church of,

103; first land grant given in California, 121.
San Carlos presidio, "Royal presidio,' 72.
San Carlos, ship, sails for California, 63, 65; first to enter the Golden

Gate, 80-81; arrival at Monterey flying the Mexican flag, 148.
San Clemente Island, discovery of, 33; named San Salvador, 48.
San Diego Bay, discovery of, 8-9; called San Miguel, 32; Viscaino at, 38;

called San Mateo, 45-46; arrival of Portola at, 64; Landing of
Galvez' expedition, 100; affair of the Lelia Byrd, 140; Captain

Jedediah Smith sails from, 170.
San Diego, during Mexican rule, 156.
San Diego County, name and origin of, 317.
San Diego mission, selection of site, 59; foundation of, 68; uprising of

the Indians, 68; intention to abandon mission, 68-69; relief sent to,

69-71; Gomez at, 71; Father Jayme killed at, 123.
San Fernando College (Mexico), Serra and Palou at, 61-62; Palou retires

to, 89.
San Fernando mission, foundation of, 92.
San Francisco Bay, passed undiscovered, 39; Indians around, 41-42; dis-

covered by Portola, 67; named by Serra, 68; first ship to enter

Golden Gate, 80-81; survey by Alberto de Cordoba, 133.
San Francisco, settlers brought from Sinaloa to, 123; Dana's descrip-

tion of, 154-155; condition in 1849, 220; effect of gold discovery on,
221-223; influx of criminals in 1849 in, 231, 234-235; "Hounds,"
outrages by in, and how suppressed, 231-235; laws in 1849 in, 233-234;
Vigilance Committee in, 235-237; assistance of, in building Central
Pacific Railroad, 282; destroyed by earthquake and fire and rebuild.

ing of, 299-301.
San Francisco County, name and origin of, 317.
San Francisco mission, foundation of, 80-81.
San Francisco presidio, foundation of, 80.
San Francisco Solano mission, foundation of, 93-94, 146; Russians at, 94.
San Gabriel mission, foundation of, 77-78; Indians at, 78; progress of,

78; punishments for crimes at, 95; Captain Jedediah Smith at, 167.
San Gabriel River, battle of, 264.
San Joaquin, name and origin of, 317.
San José, foundation of pueblo of, 118, 124, 125-126; population in 1800,

138; condition during Mexican rule, 155-156; made capital, 273.
San José mission, foundation of, 90; 169.
San Juan Bautista mission, foundation and progress, 91.
San Juan Capistrano mission, foundation of, 82; success of, 82; Indians

of, 82; destroyed by earthquake, 82; sold, 97; Buenos Ayres in.

surgents at, 147.
San Lucas Islands. See Santa Rosa Island.
San Luis Obispo, first tile manufactured in, 80.
San Luis Obispo County, name and origin of, 318.
San Luis Obispo mission, foundation of, 79-80.
San Luis Rey mission, foundation of, 92-93; Indians of, 92; restoration

of, 92-93; Mormon volunteers at, 269.
an Mateo Bay. See San Diego Bay.

San Mateo County, name and origin of, 318.
San Miguel Bay, named, 32, 46-47; 317.
San Miguel Island, 33, 52; Cabrillo's death on, 100.
San Miguel mission, foundation of, 91; Father Laguen 's account of,

91-92.
San Nicolas, story of The Woman of, 43-45.
San Pasqual, battle of, 257-262.
San Pedro Harbor, discovered, 33; Buenos Ayres ingurgents at, 147.
San Pedro, Los Angeles and Salt Lake Railroad. See Salt Lake Rail.

road.
San Rafael, General Castro at, 200; Kit Carson and Frémont at, 200.
San Rafael Mission, foundation of, 93; established, 145.
San Salvador. See San Clemente.
Sanchez' saloon, bar painted by Tavernier and Frenzeny, 112-113.
Santa Ana, General, decree of, in regard to Pious Fund, 334.
Santa Barbara Channel Indians, 42; story of the “woman of San

Nicolas, 43-45; superiority of, 85.
Santa Barbara, location and climate of, 16-17; discovery of, 33; Buenos

Ayres insurgents at, 147; during Mexican rule, 156; Captain Pedro

Arguello at, 171-172.
Santa Barbara County, name and origin of, 318.
Santa Barbara mission, site of, 84; foundation of, 85; Indians of, 84-85;

“sacred gardens'' of, 86.
Santa Barbara presidio, foundation of, 85.
Santa Catalina Island, discovery of, 33; named La Vittoria, 48.
Santa Clara College, 83-84.
Santa Clara County, name and origin of, 318-319.
Santa Clara mission, Bucareli orders foundation of, 80-81; foundation

of, 83; Jesuits at, 83-84.
Santa Clara Valley, 17-19, 49.
Santa Cruz Island, discovery of, 33.
Santa Cruz, during Mexican rule, 156.
Santa Cruz County, name and origin of, 319.
Santa Cruz mission, foundation of, 89-90.
Santa Fé, New Mexico, establishment of, 294; trade with Kansas City,

294; railroad from Kansas City to, 295.
Santa Fé Railroad, in California, 293-294; route from Santa Fé to Cali-

fornia and through California, 295.
Santa Fé trail, 294, 295.
Santa Inez mission. See Santa Ynez mission.
Santa Maria, Father Vicente, at San Francisco, 81.
Santa Monica Bay, name, 48; Indians of, 48-49.
Santa Rosa, ship of Buenos Ayres insurgents, 109.
Santa Rosa Island, discovery of, 33, 52; called Las Islas de San Lucas, 52.
Santa Ynez mission, foundation of, 93; restoration of, 93; attack on, by

Indians, 165-166; Father Uria's defense against Indians, 165-166.
Saravia, Father Tomas de la Peña, foundation of Santa Clara mission

conducted by, 83; death of, 90.
Savannah, U. s. frigate, at Monterey, 205.
Scott, William, 206.
Seal of California. See State seal.
Sears, Mrs. John, assists in making Bear flag, 195.
Secularization of missions. See Missions.

Semple, Robert, started “Californian” newspaper, 111; in Bear Flag

Revolution, 192, 202; chairman of convention for framing the con-

stitution, 272.
Sequoias, 40.
Serra, Father Junipero, cross erected in memory of, on Mt. Rubidoux,

13; connection with José Galvez, 56-59, 62, 63; sketch of life of,
60-62; expedition to California, 62; in Mexico, 61-62; at San Diego,
64, 65, 68-71, 117; accompanies Portola on his second expedition in
search of Monterey, 71-72; foundation of San Carlos mission by, 72;
work with the Indians, 73-74; return of, to San Carlos mission, 77;
San Antonio de Padua mission founded by, 76-77; San Gabriel mis-
sion founded by, 77-78; San Luis Obispo mission, founded by, 79-80;
at San Francisco mission, 80-81; Santa Clara mission founded, 83;
San Buenaventura, 84, 322; at Santa Barbara, 85; his last two years,
86-87; death of, 87; result of his work, 87-88; grief of Indians upon
death of, 88; his punishment of criminals, 95; why his work was
successful, 98; dispute with military authority, 121; his relations
with Governor de Neve, 124, 282, 283; first waterway in California
projected by, 305; in California, 332-333; his most famous walk,
349-354; statement to Viceroy Bucareli in regard to state of mis-
sions in California, 351-354; charges against Comandante Fages,

352; grave of, 363-366; official record of the death of, 364-365.
Serra Tree,” story of, 102.
Seven Cities of Cibola. See Cibola, seven cities of.
Shasta County, name and origin of, 319.
Shelvocke, Captain George, voyage of, 37.
Sherman, William Tecumseh, story of Señorita Bonifacio and, 110-111.
Sherwood, W. S., 356.
Shubrick, W. Branford, arrival at Monterey, 269; succeeded by Com-

modore Biddle, 269.
Sierra County, name and origin of, 319.
Sierra Gorda mission, Serra at, 61-62.
Sierra Mountains, difficulties in building railroad across, 286-289.
Sinaloa, settlers brought from to San Francisco, 123.
Sir Francis Drake Bay. See Drake's Bay.
Siskiyou County, name and origin of, 319-320.
Sitjar, Father Buenaventura, at San Miguel mission, 92.
Six Callieux, Ford on Umpqua River, 320.
Slavery, danger of California becoming a slave state, 272.
Sloat, John D., arrival at Monterey of, 205; instructions to, from United

States government, 205, 239-240; his indecision in regard
Frémont, 205-206; United States flag raised at Monterey under, 110,
239; his letters to General Castro and Pio Pico, 240; proclamation
of, 240-243; Pico's failure to answer letter of, 243; Castro's evasive
reply, 243; transference of authority to Stockton, 243; his protest

to Secretary of Navy against Stockton's address, 244.
Sluice, as mining appliance, 228.
Smith, Azariah, 217.
Smith, Jedediah, leads first American overland expedition to California,

166; unwelcome reception, 167-168; failure to leave California, 168-
169; letter to Father Duran, 169; departure from California, 169,

170; return to California, 170; arrest of and final departure, 170-171.
Snyder, Jacob R., 320, 357.

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