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ues, who was to remain in command at Fort Cumberland, advised the dismissal of all but a few to serve as guides; certain it is, before Braddock recommenced his march, none remained to accompany him but Scarooyadi, and eight of his warriors.1

Seeing the general's impatience at the non-arrival of conveyances, Washington again represented to him the difficulties he would encounter in attempting to traverse the mountains with such a train of wheel-carriages, assuring him it would be the most arduous part of the campaign; and recommended, from his own experience, the substitution, as much as possible, of pack-horses. Braddock, however, had not been sufficiently harassed by frontier campaigning to depart from his European modes, or to be swayed in his military operations by so green a counselor.

At length the general was relieved from present perplexities by the arrival of the horses and wagons which Franklin had undertaken to procure. That eminent man, with his characteristic promptness and unwearied exertions, and by his great personal popularity, had obtained them from the reluctant Pennsylvania farmers, being obliged

1 Braddock's own secretary, William Shirley, was disaffected to him. Writing about him to Governor Morris, he sa tirically observes: "We have a general most judiciously cho sen for being disqualified for the service he is employed in. almost every respect." to them, I don't think we have much to boast. Some are And of the secondary officers: nsolent and ignorant; others capable, but rather aiming showing their own abilities than making a proper use of th Colonial Records, vi. 405.

to plodge his own responsibility for their being fully remunerated. He performed this laborious task out of pure zeal for the public service, author expecting nor receiving emolument; and, In fact, experiencing subsequently great delay and Vmbarrassment before he was relieved from the primary posponsibilities thus patriotically in

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Plos arrival of the conveyances put Braddock for good humor with Pennsylvania. In a letter " Vic Morris, he alludes to the threat of Say dylon De Clair to go through that province # word in his hand. "He is las having talked to you in the manNad the general made Franklin's wowy Air Ways the sole instance in which he kivory kpvraynood deceit and villainy. "I hope, kolly's in Spare of all this,” adds he, “that we alist pay a thirry Christmas together."

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March from Fort Cumberland. - The Great Savage Mountain. Camp at the Little Meadows. - Division of the Forces. -Captain Jack and his Band. - Scarooyadi in Danger. -Illness of Washington. - His Halt at the Youghiogheny. - March of Braddock. The Great Meadows. - Lurking Their Tracks.- Precautions.-Thicketty Run.


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- Scouts. Indian Murders. - Funeral of an Indian Warrior. Camp on the Monongahela. - Washington's Arrival there.-March for Fort Duquesne. - The Fording of the Monongahela. - The Battle. - The Retreat. - Death of Braddock.

N the 10th of June, Braddock set off from Fort Cumberland with his aidesde-camp, and others of his staff, and his body-guard of light horse. Sir Peter Halket, with his brigade, had marched three days previously; and a detachment of six hundred men, under the command of Colonel Chapman, and the supervision of Sir John St. Clair, had been employed upwards of ten days in cutting down trees, removing rocks, and opening a road.

The march over the mountain proved, as Washington had foretold, a "tremendous undertaking." It was with difficulty the heavily laden wagons could be dragged up the steep and rugged roads, newly made, or imperfectly repaired. Often they extended for three or four miles in a straggling

and broken line, with the soldiers so dispersed, in guarding them, that an attack on any side would have thrown the whole in confusion. It was the dreary region of the great Savage Mountain, and the Shades of Death” that was again made to echo with the din of arms.

What outraged Washington's notions of the abstemious frugality suitable to campaigning in the "backwoods," was the great number of horses and wagons required by the officers for the transportation of their baggage, camp equipage, and a thousand articles of artificial necessity. Simple himself in his tastes and habits, and manfully indifferent to personal indulgences, he almost doubted whether such sybarites in the camp could be efficient in the field.

By the time the advanced corps had struggled over two mountains, and through the intervening forest, and reached (16th June) the Little Meadows, where Sir John St. Clair had made a temporary camp, General Braddock had become aware of the difference between campaigning in a new country, or on the old well-beaten battlegrounds of Europe. He now of his own accord turned to Washington for advice, though it must have been a sore trial to his pride to seek it of so young a man; but he had by this time sufficient proof of his sagacity, and his knowledge of the frontier.

Thus unexpectedly called on, Washington gave his counsel with becoming modesty, but with his accustomed clearness. There was fust now an opportunity to strike an effecti




Duquesne, but it might be lost by delay. The garrison, according to credible reports, was weak; large reinforcements and supplies, which were on their way, would be detained by the drought, which rendered the river by which they must come low and unnavigable. The blow must be

struck before they could arrive. He advised the general, therefore, to divide his forces; leave one part to come on with the stores and baggage, and all the cumbrous appurtenances of an army, and to throw himself in the advance with the other part, composed of his choicest troops, lightened of everything superfluous that might impede a rapid march.

His advice was adopted. Twelve hundred men selected out of all the companies, and furnished with ten field-pieces, were to form the first division, their provisions and other necessaries to be carried on packhorses. The second division, with all the stores, munitions, and heavy baggage, was to be brought on by Colonel Dunbar.

The least practicable part of the arrangement was with regard to the officers of the advance. Washington had urged a retrenchment of their baggage and camp equipage, that as many of their horses as possible might be used as packhorses. Here was the difficulty. Brought up, many of them, in fashionable and luxurious life, or the loitering indulgence of country quarters, they were so encumbered with what they considered indispensable necessaries, that out of two hundred and twelve horses generally appropriated to their use, notre than a dozen could be

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