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tionary at Antigua : in hearing the causes from the other islands he fits alone, but in causes arising within the island he is affifted by a council; and by an act of affembly, fanctioned by the crown, the president and a majority of the council may hear and determine chancery causes during the abfence of the governor-general ; besides this court, there is a court of King's Bench, a court of Common Pleas, and a court of Exchequer.

The legislature of Antigua confifts of the commander in chief, a council of twelve members, and an assembly of twenty-five. The legislature of Antigua set the first example of a melioration of the criminal law respecting negro llaves, by allowing them a trial by jury, &c. And the inhabitants, still more to their honour, have encouraged the propagation of the gospel among their flaves.


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GRENADA lies in west longitude 61° 40', north latitude 12° oʻ. It is the last of the windward Caribbecs, and lies thirty lcagacs north of New-Andalufia, on the continent. According to some, it is twenty-four leagues in compass; according to others, only twentytwo; and it is said to be thirty miles in length, and in some places fifteen in breadth. The island abounds with wild game and fish; it produces also very fine timber, but the cocoa tree is observed not to thrive here so well as in the other islands. A lake on a high mountain, about the middle of the island, supplies it with fresh water streams. Several bays and harbours lie round the island, some of which might be fortified to great advantage ; so that it is very convenient for shipping, not being subject to hurricanes. · The soil is capable of producing tobacco, sugar, indigo, pease and millet.

Columbus found it inhabited by a fierce, warlike people, who were left in quiet possession of the island till 1650; though, according to others, in 1638, M. Poincy, a Frenchman, attempted to make a settlement in Grenada, but was driven off by the Caribbeans, who resorted to this island in greater numbers than to the neighbouring ones, probably on account of the game with which it abounded. In 1650, however, Mons. Parquet, governor of Martinico, carried over from that isand two hundred men, furnished with prefents to reconcile the savages to them ; but with arms to fubdue them, in case they should prove untractable. The savages are said to have been frightened into subiniffion by the number of Frenchmen; but, according to some French writers, the chief not only welcomed the new-comers, but, in confideration of some knives, hatchets, scissars, and other toys, yielded to Parquet the sovereignty of the island, reserving to themselves their own habitations. The Abbé Raynal informs us, that these first French colonists, imagining they had pur. chased the island by these trifles, assumed the sovereignty, and soon acted as tyrants. The Caribs, unable to contend with them by force, took their usual method of murdering all those whom they found in a defenceless state. This produced a war; and the French fettlers, having received a reinforcement of three hundred men from Martinico, forced the favages to retire to a mountain; from whence, after exhausting all their arrows, they rolled down great logs of wood on their enemies. Here they were joined by other savages from the neighbouring islands, and again attacked the French, but were defeated anew ; and were at last driven to such desperation, that forty of them, who had escaped from the slaughter, jumped from a precipice into the sea, where they all perished, rather than fall into the hands of their implacable enemies. From thence the rock was called le morne des fauteurs, or, " the hill of the leapers," which name it still retains. The French then destroyed the habitations and all the provisions of the ravages; but fresh supplies of the Caribheins arriving, the war was renewed with great vigour, and great numbers of the French were killed. Upon this they resolved totally to exterminate the natives; and having accordingly attacked the fac vages unawares, they inhumanly put to death the women and chile dren, as well as the men; burning all their boats and canoes, to cut off also communication between the few survivors and the neighbouring iflands.* Notwithstanding all these barbarous precautions, however, the Caribbees proved the irreconcileable enemies of the French; and their frequent insurrections at last obliged Parquet to fell all his property in the island to the Count de Cerillac in 1657-+ The new proprietor, who purchased Parquet's property for thirty thousand crowns, fent thither a person of brutal manners to govern the island. He behaved with such insupportable tyranny, that most of the colonists retired to Martinico; and the few who remained condemned him to death after a formal trial. In the whole court


Of the manner in which these perfons carried on the war againft the natives, a pretty correct estirpate may be formed from the following circumstance: a beautiful Foung girl, of twelve or thirteen years of age, who was taken alive, became the object of dispute between two of the French officers ; cach of thern claiming her as his prize, a third coming up, put an end to the contest by shooting the girl through the he.d.

+ Mr. Edwards attributes this fale to another cause; he says, the Caribbees were rotally extinct, and that it was the great expenk wbich Parquet had been at in conquering the illand which obliged him to fell it,


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of justice that tried this miscreant; there was only one man (called
Archangeli) who could write. A farrier was the person who im-
peached; and he, instead of the fignatures, sealed with a horse-
fhoc; and Archangeli, who performed the office of clerk, wrote
round it these words in French, " Mark of Mr. de la Brie, counsel
for the court."

Cerrilac receiving, as supposed, but little profit from his capital,
conveyed all his rights, &c. to the French West-India company ;
the charter of which being abolished in 1674, the island became
vested in the crown of France. Under the various calamities to
which this island was subjected, it will not be supposed to have
made much progress. By an account taken in 1700, there were at
Grenada no more than two hundred and fifty-one white people, fifty-
three free favages or mulattoes, and five hundred and twenty-five
Naves. The useful animals were reduced to fixty-four horses and
five hundred and fixtynine head of horned cattle. The whole cul-
ture consisted of three plantations of sugar, and fifty-two of indigo.

This unfavourable state of the affairs of Grenada was changed in
1714. The change was owing to the flourishing condition of Mar-
tinico. The richest of the thips from that illand were sent to the
Spanish coasts, and in their way touched at Grenada to take in re-
freshments. The trading privateers, who undertook this navigation,
taught the people of that island the value of their soil, which only
required cultivation. Some traders furnished the inhabitants with
flaves and utensils to erect sugar plantations. An open account was
established between the two colonies. Grenada was clearing its
debts gradually by its rich produce, and the balance was on the point
of being closed, when the war in 1744 interrupted the communica-
tion between the two islands, and at the same time stopped the pro-
gress of the sugar plantations. This loss was supplied by the culture
of coffee, which was pursued during the hostilities with all the acti-
vity and eagerness that industry could inspire. The peace of 1748
revived all the labours, and opened all the former sources of wealth.
In 1753, the population of Grenada consisted of one thousand two
hundred and fixty-two white people, one hundred and seventy-five
free negroes, and eleven thousand nine hundred and ninety-one
llaves. The cattle announted to two thousand two hundred and
ninety-eight horses or mules, two thousand four hundred and fifty-fix
head of horned cattle, three thousand two hundred and seventy-eight
sticep, nine hundred and two goats, and three hundred and thirty-one
Vol. IV.


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hogs. The cultivation rose to eighty-threc sugar plantations, two millions seven hundred and twenty-five thousand fix hundred coffee trees, one hundred and fifty thousand three hundred cacoa trees, and eight hundred cotton plants. The provisions consisted of five millions feven hundred forty thousand four hundred and fifty trenches of caffada, nine hundred and thirty-three thousand five 'hundred and ninety-lix banana trees, and one hundred and forry. three squares of potatoes and yams. The coloniy made a rapid progress, in proportion to the excellence of its foil'; but in the course of 'the last war but onė, the island was taken by the British. At this time, one of the mountains at the side of St. George's harbour was strongly 'fortified, and might have made a good defence, but 'surrendered without firing a gun ; and by the treaty concluded in 1763 the iland was ceded to Britain. On this ceffion, and the management of the colony after that event, the Abbé Raynal has the following remarks: “ This long train of evils (the ambition and mismanage.

ment of his countrymen] has thrown Grenada into the hands of the English, who are in poffeffion of this conqueft by the treaty of 1763.

But how long will they keep this colony ? Or, will it never again be restored to France ? Erigland made 'nót a fortunate beginning. In the first enthusiasm raised by an acquisition, of which the highest opinion had been previously formed, every one was eager to purchase estates there; they fold for much more than their real value. This caprice, ' by 'expelling old colonists who were inured to the climate, fent about one million five hundred and fifty-three thoufand pounds out of the mother country. This imprudence was followed by another. The new proprietors, mifled by national pride, subItituted new methods to those of their predeceflors ; they attempted to alter the mode of living among their slaves. The negroes, who from their very ignorance are more attached to their custoins than other men, revolted. It was found neceffary to send out troops, and to shed blood: 'the whole colony was filled with suspicions: the masters, who had laid themselves under a neceility of using violent methods, were afraid of being burnt or massacred in their own plan. tations: the labours declined, or were toially interrupted. Tranquillity was at length restored, and the number of flaves increased as far as forty thousand, and the produce raised to the treble of what it was uncler the French government. The plantations were farther improved by the neighbourhood of a dozen of islands, called the Grenadines or Grenadillocs, which are dependent on the colony.


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