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water to him who is dying with thirst? Whether any of the Codrington family would partake of one of those precious pintados, that had cost his countryman or his fellow-creature his life? Whether the man who should be convicted of having suffered a fick person to die at his door, would be sufficiently punished by tlre general execration ? And whether he would not deserve to be dragged before the tribunals of justice as an assaffin?
Anguilla is seven or eight leagues in length, and is very unequal in its breadth, which never exceeds two leagues. Neither mountains, nor woods, nor rivers, are found upon it, and its foil is nothing more than chalk.
Some wandering Englishmen fettled upon this porous and friable rock towards the year 1650. After an obstinate labour, they at length succeeded in obtaining from this kind of turf a little cotton, a small quantity of millet seed, and some potatoes. Six veins of vegetating earth, which were in process of time discovered, received fugar-canes, which, in the best harvest, yield no more than fifty thousand weight of fugar, and sometimes only five or fix thousand. Whatever else comes out of the colony hath been introduced into it clandestinely from Santa Cruz, where the inhabitants of Anguilla have formed several plantations.
In seasons of drought, which are but too frequent, the island hath no other resource but in a lake, the salt of which is sold to the people of New-England; and in the sale of sheep and goats, which thrive better in this dry climate, and upon these arid plains, than in the reft of America,
Anguilla reckons no more than two hundred free inhabitants, and five hundred flaves : nevertheless it hath an assembly of its own, and even a chief, who is always chosen by the inhabitants, and confirmed by the governor of Antigua. A foreigner, who fhould be sent to govern this feeble settlement, would infallibly be driven away, by men who have preserved something of the independent manners, and of the rather savage character of their ancestors.
The coast of this island affords but two harbours, and even in these very small vessels only can anchor : they are both defended by four pieces of capnon, which, for half a century past, have been enurely unfit for service.
This cluster of islands lies almost in the form of a flaepherd's crook, in west longitude 65°, north latitude 32° 30', between two and three hundred leagues distant from the nearest place of the continent of America, or of any of the other Weft-India islands. The whole number of the Bermudas islands is said to be about four hun. dred, but very few of them are habitable. The principal is St. George's, which is not above fixteen miles long, and three at most in breadth. It is universally agreed, that the nature of this and the other Bermudas islands has undergone a surprifing alteration for the worse, since they were first discovered; the air being much more inclement, and the foil much more barren than formerly: this is afcribed to the cutting down those fine spreading cedar trees for which the illands were famous, and which sheltered them from the blasts of ibe north wind, at the same time that it protected the undergrowth of the delicate plants and herbs. In short, the Summer i lands are now far from being desirable spots.; and their natural productions are but juft fufficient for the support of the inhabitants, who chiefly, for that reason perhaps, are temperate and lively even to a proverb. At first tobacco was raised upon these islands, buc being of a worse quality than that growing on the continent, the trade is now almost at an end. Large quantities of ambergris were also originally found on the coasts, and afforded a valuable commerce; but that trade also reduced, as likewise their whale trade, though the perquifites pon the latter form part of the governor's revenue, he having ten pounds for every whale that is caught. The Bermadas iflands, however, might fill produce some valuable ccmmodities, were they properly cultivated. There is here found, about three or four feet below the surface, a white chalk stone which is easily chiselled, and is exported for building gentlemen's houses in the West-Indies. Their palmetto leaves, if properly marrufac
tured, might turn to excellent account in making women's hats; and their oranges are still valuable. Their foil is also said to be excellent for the cultivation of vines, and it has been thought that filk and cochineal might be produced ; but none of these things have yet been attempted. The chief resource of the inhabitants for subfiftence is in the remains of their cedar-wood, of which they fabricate small floops, with the assistance of the New-England pine, and fell many of them to the American colonies, where they are much ad. mired. Their turtle-catching trade is also of service; and they are still able to rear great variety of tame-fowl, and have wild ones abounding in vast plenty. All the attempts to establish a regular, whale fishery on these islands have hitherto proved unsuccessful; they have no cattle, and even the black hog breed, which was probably left by the Spaniards, is greatly decreased. The water on the islands, except that which falls from the clouds, is brackish ; and at present the same diseases reign there as in the Caribbee iflands. They have seldom any snow, or even much rain ; but when it does fall, it is generally with great violence, and the north or north-east wind readers the air very cold. The storms generally come with the new moon; and if there is a halo or circle about it, it is a sure sign of a tempeft, which is generally attended with dreadful thunder and lightning. The inhabited parts of the Bermudas islands are divided into nine districts, called tribes. 1. St. George. 2. Hamilton. 3. Ireland. 4. Devonshire. 5. Pembroke. 6. Pagets. 7. Warwick. 8. Southampton. 9. Sandys. There are but two places on the large ifland where a fhip can safely come near the shore, and these are so well covered with high rocks, that few will chuse to enter in without a pilot; and they are so well defended by forts, that they have no occasion to dread an enemy. St. George's town is at the bottom of the principal haven, and is defended by nine forts, on which are mounted seventy pieces of cannon that command the entrance. The town has a handsome church, a fine library, and a noble town-house, where the governor, council, &c. assemble. The tribes of Southampton and Devonshire have each a parish church and library, and the former has a harbour of the same name; there are allo scattered houses and hamlets over many of the islands, where particular plantations require them. The inhabitants are clothed chiefly with British manufactures, and all their implements for tilling the ground and building are made in Britain.
It is uncertain who were the first discoverers of the Bermudas islands. John Bermudas, a Spaniard, is commonly said to have difcovered them in 1527; but this is disputed, and the discovery attributed to Henry May, an Englishman. As the islands were with out the reach of the Indian navigation, the Bermudas were absolutely uninhabited when first discovered by the Europeans. May abovementioned was fhipwrecked upon St. George's, and with the cedar which they felled there, affisted by the wreck of their own ship, he and his companions built another which carried than to Europe, where they published their accounts of the islands. When Lord Delawar was governor of Virginia, Sir Thomas Gates, Sir George Summers, and Captain Newport, were appointed to be his deputygovernors; but their ship being separated by a storm from the rest of the squadron, was in the year 1609 wrecked on the Bermudas, and the governors disagreeing among themselves, built each of them a new, ship of the cedar they found there, in which they severally failed to Virginia. On their arrival there, the colony was in such distress, that Lord Delawar, upon the report which his deputygovernors made him of the plenty they found at the Bermudas, dispatched Sir George Summers to bring provisions from thence to Virginia, in the fame ship which brought him from Bermudas, and which had not an ounce of iron about it except one bolt in the keel. Sir George, after a tedious voyage, at last reached the place of his deftination, where, foon after his arrival, he died, leaving his name to the islands, and his orders to the crew to return with black hogs to the colony of Virginia. This part of his will, however, the sailors did not chuse to execute, but setting fail in their cedar fhip for England, landed safely at Whitchurch in Dorsetshire.
Notwithstanding this dereliction of the island, however, it was not without English inhabitants. Two failors, Carter and Waters, being apprehensive of punishment for their crimes, had secreted themselves from their fellows when Sir George was wrecked upon the island, and had ever since lived upon the natural productions of the soil. Upon the second arrival of Sir George, they enticed one Chard to remain with them; but differing about the fovereignty of the island. Chard and Waters were on the point of cutting one another's throats, when they were prevented by the prudence of Carter. Soon after, they had the good fortune to find a great piece of ambergris weighing about eighty pounds, besides other pieces, which in those days were sufficient, if properly difosed of, to have made each of
them master of a large estate. Where they were, this ambergris was useless, and therefore they came to the desperate resolution of carrying themselves and it in an open boat to Virginia or to New. foundland, where they hoped to dispose of their treasure to advantage. In the mean time, however, the Virginia company claimed the property of the Bermudas islands, and accordingly fold it to one hundred and twenty persons of their own society, who obtained a charter from King James for possessing it. This new Bermudas company, as it was called, fitted out a fiip with fixty planters on board to settle on the Bermudas, under the command of one Mr. Richard Moor, by profeffion a carpenter. The new colony arrived upon
the island just at the time the three sailors were about to depart with their ambergris ; which Moor having discovered, he immediately seized and disposed of it for the benefit of the company. So valuable a booty gave vast spirit to the new company; and the adventurers settled themselves upon St. George's ifland, where they raised cabins. As to Mr. Moor, he was indefatigable in his duty, and carried on the fortifying and planting the island with incredible diligence; for we are told, that he not only built eight or nine forts, or rather blockhouses, but inured the settlers to martial discipline. Before the first year of his government was expired, Mr. Moor received a fupply of provisions and planters from England, and he planned out the town of St. George as it now stands. The fame: of this settlement soon awakened the jealousy of the Spaniards, who appeared off St. George's with fome veffels; but being fired upon by the forts, they sheered off, though the English at that time were so ill provided for a defence, that they bad scarce a fingle bar. rel of gunpowder on the island. During Moor's government, the Bermudas were plagued with rats, which had been imported into them by the English fhips. This vermin multiplied fo faft in St. George's island, that they even covered the ground, and had nests in the trees. They destroyed all the fruits and corn within doors ; nay, they increased to such a degree, that St. George's island was at last unable to maintain them, and they swam over to the neighbouring islands, where they made as great havoc. This calamity lasted five years, though probably not in the same degree, and at last it ceased all of a sudden,
On the expiration of Moor's government, he was succeeded by Captain Daniel Tucker, who improved all his predeceffor's schemes for the benefit of the idland, and particularly encouraged the culture