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THE SCRIPPS INSTITUTION FOR BIOLOGICAL

RESEARCH

OFFICERS OF THE INSTITUTION

BENJ. IDE WHEELER, Ph.D., LL.D., Litt.D., L.H.D., President of the

University, Berkeley.

RESIDENT OFFICERS

WILLIAM E. RITTER, Ph.D., Scientific Director and Professor of Zoology.
W. C. CRANDALL, A.B., Business Agent.
F. B. SUMNER, Ph.D., Biologist.
E. L. MICHAEL, M.S., Zoologist and Administrative Assistant.
GEORGE F. McEWEN, Ph.D., Hydrographer and Curator of the Oceano-

graphic Museum.
CHRISTINE E. ESSENBERG, Ph.D., Zoologist and Librarian.
P. S. BARNHART, M.S., Curator of Aquarium and Collector.
R. P. BRANDT, Ph.D., Botanist, for Special Investigation on Kelp.
H. H. COLLINS, M.S., Research Assistant.

NON-RESIDENT OFFICERS

C. A. KOFOID, Ph.D., Sc.D., Zoologist and Assistant Director, Professor

of Zoology, University of California, Berkeley. C. O. ESTERLY, Ph.D., Zoologist, Professor of Zoology, Occidental College,

Los Angeles, California. J. FRANK DANIEL, Ph.D., Special Investigator on Elasmobranch Fishes,

Associate Professor of Zoology, University of California, Berkeley.

HISTORY, SUPPORT, AND MANAGEMENT The institution grew out of the efforts in the department of zoology at the University to promote researches on the animal life of the Pacific Ocean.

Since 1901 these efforts have been continuous, more or less definitely organized, and specifically supported financially. During the first years the financial support came in small sums from numerous persons interested in the work, alumni of the University, and to a slight extent the University itself. The interest of Miss E. B. Scripps and Mr. E. W. Scripps in the undertaking began in 1903, when the itinerant equipment was moved from San Pedro to San Diego. At present all the funds for physical upbuilding and a large portion of those for maintenance come from this source, though since 1912 the State of California has contributed liberally to the support of the scientific work.

For several years the enterprise was carried on as the Marine Biological Station of San Diego, a corporation which had no official connection with the University of California, though such a relation was looked forward to and provided for in the articles of incorporation. In accordance with this provision, the property and management were transferred to the Regents of the University in 1912, the name of the foundation being then changed to that by which it is now known. The institution is, consequently, an integral part of the University of California.

LOCATION

The institution occupies a 177-acre “pueblo lot” situated on the ocean front about sixteen miles north of the center of San Diego City and two miles north of the suburb of La Jolla. Both suburb and institution are within the corporate limits of the city.

Although this site on the open ocean, considerably isolated from human habitation and transportation facilities, has introduced rather difficult and expensive elements into the problems of development, the great and unique advantages of the location for researches on the life of the open sea and on the sea itself, which researches have a central place in the institution's scientific programme, and the further advantages of ample grounds on which to build, are fully justifying and it is confidently believed will continue to justify the hazards that have been taken.

HOUSING AND EQUIPMENT A fire-proof research laboratory capable of accommodating about twentyfive investigators. All the laboratory rooms, seven in number, on the first floor, are provided with salt water aquaria, thus furnishing large facilities for indoor experimentation on marine organisms. The circulatory system is of lead and hard rubber. The aquaria are of concrete and plate glass.

A fire-proof library-muscum building recently constructed. The first floor is devoted to the natural history and oceanographie exhibits and administration offices. The library, and the reading room used also as an assembly room, are on the second floor. The stack room now in use has a capacity of about 25,000 volumes. The old and new buildings are forty feet apart, but are connected through the second floors by a closedl-in passageway.

A wharf, the piles and beams of concrete, the decking of wood, 1000 feet long and 20 feet wide. At the seaward end are placed the pump for the salt-water system, a naturalist's house, and other aids to scientific work.

A concrete storage and settling tank, capacity 40,000 gallons, at the base of the sea cliff under the wharf. The sea water for the aquaria is pumped directly into this and from this into an elerated delivery tank, also of concrete, capacity 20,000 gallons. The tank house under this contains two rooms, used mostly for the storage of zoological material.

A public aquarium building of wood, containing nineteen concrete tanks with plate-glass fronts.

A mousehouse or murariumof wood, but entirely isolated and specially constructed, with living quarters for about 1000 mice. This is for the cages of mice the individual pedigrees of which are kept for experimental purposes.

A mouse yard, a small area of native earth enclosed by concrete walls and wire screening. The purpose of this is to give captive mice of local and foreign species as nearly natural conditions as possible.

The two last mentioned structures are used by Dr. Sumner in his extensive experiments on environmental influence and heredity.

A commons, with kitchen and dining-room capacity for about forty persons, with a half-basement containing a number of bathrooms and a laundry.

Twenty-two cottages, homes for members of the biological colony. Garages, service houses, etc.

THE LIBRARY

The library, which has lately been moved into its permanent quarters on the second floor of the new building, contains over 6600 volumes and some 8000 pamphlets and unbound journals. The entire collection is well catalogued and available for use.

BOATS AND WORK AT SEA

The Alexander Agassiz, the institution's largest boat, having been found unsuitable for the marine exploration work now being carried on, has been solil. Although the funds realized from the sale are to be used in securing another boat, while the present unfavorable condition of the boat building industry lasts, boats are being hired from time to time for the heavier work. A small high-power boat, the Ellen Browning, with speed capacity of thirty miles an hour, furnished to the institution by E. W. Scripps, was commandeered by the l'nited States navy during the past year.

VISITING INVESTIGATORS The inereased facilities, both for scientific work and for living, which the recent developments have furnished, are making it possible for the institution to hold out more encouragement to visiting naturalists than it has hitherto been in position to do. For certain types of biological problems, the natural conditions, equipment, and policies of the institution are exceptional. Every general zoologist knows something of the defeetiveness of our knowledge of many, inileed most, questions pertaining to the lives of animals of the “high seas.'' Again, the institution's undertakings in oceanography, though subordinate to its biological investigations, are yet opening up alluring vistas of inquiry, some of which, particularly on the physical side of the science, may be pursued to excellent advantage at the institution.

From the standpoint of the general progress of science in America, it seems desirable that the opportunities being here developed for researches in these backward departments of science should be utilized by a larger number of investigators than it is possible for the institution with its limited means to maintain on its paid staff.

GRADUATE STUDENTS AND HIGHER DEGREES

The policy so long maintained in a somewhat tentative way of accepting a few research students who are fitted to participate advantageously in investigations being carried on by members of the regular staff can now, because of the enlarged facilities of the institution, be made more positive. Work on this basis is possible in several aspects of oceanography, the pelagic life of the sea, systematic zoology, growth of organisms, environmental influence and heredity, the technique of biological observation and thought, and possibly laboratory experimentation on the behavior of pelagic animals. No fees are charged students working on this basis, the assumption being that the work done by the student will materially aid in carrying on the institution's research programme.

Experience is proving that very profitable and pleasant arrangements of this sort can be entered into.

Graduate students regularly enrolled in the University of California for work at the Seripps Institution, may become candidates for the degrees of Master of Science and Doctor of Philosophy in accordance with the general rules for such candidacy in other departments of the l’niversity in which higher degree work is done. Residence at La Jolla may be credited toward a higher degree as residence at Berkeley, but candidates for degrees at the Seripps Institution usually find it necessary to do some work in one or more departments at Berkeley.

Investigators and graduate students who contemplate work at the institution should 'correspond with the Director before deciding to come to La Jolla. Plans for study should be set forth quite fully. It is the wish of the management to have the facilities of the institution used to the very best advantage; and undoubtedly this is possible only when due consideration is given to the question of how well the visitors' needs fall in with the natural conditions of the region and the general work and facilities of the institution.

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