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NATURAL WEALTH

OF

CALIFORNIA

COMPRISING

EARLY HISTORY ; GEOGRAPHY, TOPOGRAPHY, AND SCENERY; CLIMATE ; AGRICULTURE AND COMMERCIAL
PRODUCTS; GEOLOGY, ZOOLOGY, AND BOTANY; MINERALOGY, MINES, AND MINING PRO-
CESSES; MANUFACTURES; STEAMSHIP LINES, RAILROADS, AND COMMERCE ;
IMMIGRATION, POPULATION AND SOCIETY ; EDUCATIONAL IN-

STITUTIONS AND LITERATURE; TOGETHER WITH

A DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF EACH COUNIY;

ITS TOPOGRAPHY, SCENERY, CITIES AND TOWNS, AGRICULTURAL

ADVANTAGES, MINERAL RESOURCES, AND

VARIED PRODUCTIONS.

BY

TITUS FEY CRONISE.

( SAN FRANCISCO:
H. H. BANCROFT & COMPANY.

NEW YORK: 113 WILLIAM STREET.

1868.

1-334 trot
US 38239168-5

UTYARD COLLEGE LIBRARY

1875, Nov.24.

Nov. 24 134 Exchange

of Beeklicatis?

Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1808,

BY TITUS FEY CRONISE, In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States, for the

District of California.

STEREOTYLED AT THE CALIFORNIA TIPE FOUNTRY,
From Type manufactured by W». FAULKNER & Sox,

411 Clay Street, San Francisco.

INTRODUCTORY.

The Publishers present this work as the most recent, comprehensive, and elaborate treatise upon the history, geography, geology, natural history, climate, population, wealth, industry, products, and resources of California. Unusual pains have been taken to insure its acceptance as a work not alone of passing interest, but as a standard authority on all the subjects it embraces.

There is a strong demand for such an authority, both for the purposes of local information and reference, and for citation and general use abroad, where, for many reasons, much attention has recently been attracted to our State. The successful establishment of mail steam communication with Japan and China; the acquisition of Alaska; the near completion of the Pacific railroad; the remarkable increase of our agricultural products and exports, enabling California to compete profitably with the foremost wheat countries in the markets of Europe, are circumstances that have, within the past twelve months, caused more particular inquiry to be made concerning the State than ever before. It is no longer looked upon as the isolated abode of a nomadic and somewhat lawless community, absorbed mainly in gold seeking, and generally indifferent to the healthy pursuits and noble concerns of life-but as a well-ordered commonwealth, prolific in natural resources and capacities beyond all its sisters ; favored by a delightful climate; advancing in substantial prosperity; attesting the fertility of its soil by a wheat crop approximating in value its yield of gold; and rivaling two zones in the variety of its other products. It is seen to be the nucleus of a great empire on the Pacific, already adjoined by States and Territories of remarkable characteristics, and laying a train of causes that will some day shift the currents of commercial and monetary exchange.

Hence it is desirable to collate in one volume a reliable statement of the salient facts concerning a region of so much interest ; to make such a compilation as will serve as a magazine for the use of all who have occasion to write or speak about California, and which, when drawn upon by journalists abroad for popular articles, will disseminate correct information and ideas where these are most needed and will have the most beneficial effects While this work has been prepared in a spirit of natural pride, everything like exaggeration has been guarded against. The material facts are set forth with plain speech, and often with statistical brevity—the reader being left, in most cases, to draw his own conclusions. The grand aim has been to give full and correct information—not to argue or commend.

Those who are most anxious for the rapid peopling and development of the State should desire no more than the accomplishment of this aim, which must supply the most effective of all arguments—those derived from the irrefutable logic of facts.

In pursuance of the ideas above set forth, the author has drawn upon every reliable source of information; has employed the best ability in original resea

searches, and has collated a large amount of valuable matter not before printed. The whole material in the book, which embraces over 700 imperial octavo pages, has been gathered and written within a year-much of it within a few weeks of publication; so that the very latest official and other data have been availed of to make each department as fresh and complete as possible. The author has been assisted by a corps of specially qualified gentlemen, who have established reputations as statisticians, scientists, and writers on subjects of practical and economical interest, and most of whom have brought to this work the best results of years of experience and observation.

The division of the work comprises a variety of subjects, some of which may be mentioned here to afford an idea of the scope of the book: History, 70 pages; Geography, 20 pages ; Description and Statistics of the Counties, separately, 237 ; Climate, 21 ; Agriculture, 43; Geology, 37; Zoology, 67; Flora, 27; Mining and Metallurgical Processes, 34; Mines and Mining, 34; Manufactures, 47; San Francisco, 23. Among the miscellaneous topics treated are the following : Immigration; Population ; Literature ; Educational Matters ; Railroads; Petroleum ; Shipbuilding; Telegraphs ; City aud County Finances ; U. S. Branch Mint, etc.

A very brief review of the more striking facts referring to California

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