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MINOR BEELZ ITH PRUSSIANISM everywhere on the retreat, evidence that Germany with autocracy's defenses cracking all along the line,
port to her subordinate a with the Japanese winning victories in Siberia, “with
minor Beelzebubs," as Bulgaria begging for an armistice, with the Turkish forces in
the foundations of Germ Palestine virtually annihilated, with the Americans and French : These simultaneous Al pressing on victoriously in Champagne, with the British advanc- donia, with their prolo ing in the direction of Cambrai," as the New York Torld sizes preparation," says the . up the situation, our editors now see the turn toward victory of
wonderful feat of genera the long lane through which the free peoples of the world have
the principle of unitied co been struggling these four years. They see Germany's military delphia Press notes, has k might, tho 'still formidable, at last beginning to crumble. And Front busy, “and now on while Berlin trembles at the news from the Somme and the
several ‘side shows.' T Meuse and the Vardar and the Struma , and the Jordan, the
in quick succession at poi reverberation of Allied blows, in one editor's phrase, “thrills the action, others point out, ' enemies of Germany with joyous expectation.” Truly do the America, tho supposed French call the present season the "Autumn of Vengeance," says Bulgaria, hailed the recon à Paris correspondent of the New York Times, noting these facts:
an American victory, wh “Austria pleading for peace and confessing that only enough the Turk from the Holy I flour is left to last till January; the Bulgarian armies hopelessly
In the word cut in two and in disorderly retreat; Turkey disastrously de
great cavalry-rides of hifeated, with the loss of two of her best armies and two of her richest provinces; Germany suffering the accumulated bitter
plains of Sharon to Naza ness of ten consecutive weeks of continuous defeats along the Galilee, and, in three day: whole extent of what she regarded as the most impregnable part tween the Dead Sea and of her front at the hands of armies she believed at her merey,
the most of his brilliant su and looking forward with ever-growing terror to the vengeance for all her crimes that awaits her at the hands of an American
will fall, opening the road army stronger than her own."
effect a junction with Ger
would put the British on t The capture of twenty villages and 18,000 prisoners in the first two days' adyance by French and Americans in Champagne,
iterranean to the Persian and the rush of llaig's Britons through the outer defenses of
is also threatened by the Cambrai, threatened not only the Hindenburg line, but the
the Bulgarian armies hav very existence of the Quadruple Alliance. For it meant that
Servia recaptured. Furti the Bulgarians and Turks, whose armies were crusht during
here cut off Constantinopl the preceding fortnight, could expect no help from Berlin. Their
would mean, says the W:
both Bulgaria and Turke call was as vain, our press writers note, as the despairing cry to Baal for help that rose from the false prophets on Mount
open path into Hungary; Carmel in ancient days, and will be answered only by the roar
ening the Western Front, of Allied guns. First, the "slipping and slippery” (zar of the
Allied military and poli Bulgars, as the Allies cut his army to pieces and penetrate
and Macedonia, says the his territory, capturing his frontier strongholds, frantically begs
London Times dispatch to Field-Marshal von Mackensen to come and take the command
“They are, first, to red of his shattered forces; then his Government humbly pleads for opprest by alien dominat an armistice from Gen. Franchet d'Esperer, the Allied com- Oriental policy and disco mander in Macedonia. At the same time there flees through
time guaranties for futur
the final peace conference Constantinople, toward Germany and safety, another German
sible, gain fresh points of Field-Marshal who had promised the Sultan an easy conquest of Egypt, but who had barely saved his own skin after the
The Eastern victories i crushing defeat of the Turkish armies he commanded on the
“Easterners” and “Weste old battle-field of Armageddon. The war-lord in Berlin can spare
of the latter, General M: no aid from his own hard-prest lines in France. Our editors
New York Times, not to are convinced that Teutonic prestige in the East has been for- “Let us have no illus ever shattered by the events of this September, and that the Turkey, and Bulgaria dec
time, and there is no way round which leads to the defeat of Germany. If we are led into attempting these excursions we. are prolonging the war.”
The same view is taken by the New York Evening Post,
fire on the strongest Bulgarian positions along the Saloniki front. Two weeks later some of these positions were carried by assault with the capture of 800 prisoners and considerable booty. On September 15, after several days' bombardment, the great advance was begun by the French and the reconstituted Servian Army. The first day's fighting saw the Bulgarians driven back nine miles with a loss of a thousand prisoners. Day after day the offensive went on, the front broadening, the spear-head thrusting further north into Servia. In a week the fighting was general from Monastir to the Struma. On the left the Italians helped against the first Bulgarian Army. On the right the British and the new Greek Army struck north, driving the second Bulgarian Army beyond its own frontier. By the 26th there was continuous fighting on a 150-mile front, and the Allied center had advanced until Prilep and Ishtib were taken and the Bulgarian armies on either side of the Vardar were in grave danger of being cut off from each other and encircled in turn, The first week's fighting brought in as many as 10,000 prisoners and hundreds of guns. The Bulgarian positions were strong, being well fortified and situated in a land of steep mountains, but fell easily before the irrepressible Servians who were reconquering their fatherland. At some points, particularly near their own frontier, the Bulgarians held well, but on many sectors, according to the dispatches, they retreated helter-skelter, abandoning guns, supplies, and wounded soldiers; several regiments mutinied. The Servians, says the London Daily Mail, “performed one of the most difficult military feats, a deed comparable to the breaking of the Wotan line." A Jugo-Slav division also gave a good account of itself in the early part of this campaign.
The immediate purposes of the Macedonian campaign are set forth by Mr. Frank II. Simonds in the New York Tribune:
"First, to exert upon the Bulgar Army, weakened by transfer of divisions to the West Front, such pressure as will recall the divisions sent away, produce defeat before the divisions can be recalled, and add to the discontent and apprehension already existing in Bulgaria; secondly, by thrusting up the Cerna Valley; to cut the Bulgar communications in the lower Vardar Valley, compelling a withdrawal from all the strong positions near the Greek
pro Au Sei
RELATION OF THE BALKAN FRONT TO ADJACENT LANDS.
eag tha Bu Bul Sim Che "he Bul bet for pen: tem belie
which argues that successes in Palestine and Macedonia were made possible by Foch's offensive in France, and observes:
“It is not minimizing the importance of the victories in the East to say that the Allies are working for a swifter victory than could be obtained by the crushing of Turkey and Bulgaria and their separation from the Central Alliance. If we were content to stand for two years on the defensive in France, the war might be so won. But that is precisely what the great Allied effort, and principally America's effort, is intended to avoid. . . . If the war were to be won by negotiation the Allies would be justified in concentrating on the policy of piecemeal Eastern conquest and the break-up of the Teuton alliance. But as it is, Foch will still prepare himself to break the German line once for all between the North Sea and the Vosges.”
On the other hand, it seems to the military expert of the New York Times that these successes in the East have certainly "justified in full measure the British judgment in' continuing their forces in what would on the surface appear to be but subsidiary fields." The Washington Post laments the long ascendency of the “Westerners" in Allied councils. It believes them largely responsible for the fact that the Central Powers were enabled “without let or hindrance" to consolidate their positions in Roumania, Asia Minor, and the Russian Black Sea littoral. The results in Macedonia and Palestine have, in the opinion of this newspaper, more than justified the expectations of the “Easterners,” and “the only pity is” that their views
were so long opposed and that the present success was not obtained eighteen long months ago, which, in the opinion of competent observers, could have been done.” The Brooklyn Eagle is of much the same opinion and declares that “a destroyed Turkey, an emancipated Servia, a revived Roumania, and a Greece infused with new vitality and power are objects that can and ought to be secured while the waning strength of Germany is concentrated for the defense of her menaced frontiers."
The Macedonian campaign, as the Philadelphia Inquirer points out, began on August 14, when Servian artillery opened
HOW ALLENBY TRAPT THE TURKISH ARMY IN PALESTINE:
frontier which have been occupied for more than two years; finally, by breaking the communications between the Vardar Valley and Monastir by way of Prilep, to compel the Bulgars to retire out of all of Macedonia west of the Vardar, thus
Saloniki e carried
housand e front - Servia. Struma. 1 Army.
north, Frontier. e front,
-cled in 10,000
-Brown in tha Chicago Daily Ne
disengaging Monastir and thrusting a wedge between the Bul- in the long history of strategy in that region since the day gars in Macedonia and the Austrians in Albania.
Pharaoh Necho went up to fight against Carchemish, an “So much for the military purpose. In addition, the Allies
the armies of Judah on the way.” The Turkish defe are now striving to get north and into communication with the Servians of the conquered regions of Servia and with the restless
crushing. In all, 45,000 men were taken prisoners an and disloyal Jugo-Slavs of the Austrian and Hungarian Adriatic guns were captured. The huge captures were due to the re provinces to enable these to make a successful rising against the able work of the British cavalry and their Arabian al Austro-Hungarian Government. . . An Allied advance through
cutting off the retreat of the disorganized remnants Servia might rouse Roumania, brutally opprest by the German invaders and already showing signs of resentment."
Turkish host at the fords of the Jordan and in the desert
west. On the 24th Allenby followed up his victory by Even before the crushing attacks on their forces in Macedonia,
Haifa and Acre on the Mediterranean coast. Further ad the morale of the Bulgarians was not at its best, according to
have carried the British to the sea of Galilee and to impo several authorities. There is much difficult country between
points on the Hejaz railroad. The victory of General AL Saloniki and Sofia, and the armies of the Central Powers have had
has been hailed in London as a model in conception and execu time to construct powerful lines. But, observes the New York
The use of both cavalry and infantry is called by General Ma Times, "no line can hold if there are not men enough to hold it, or if the men holding it have lost their morale." Bulgarian
as perfect an example of cooperation of two arms in a de
battle as is to be found in the pages of history." Of the eagerness for peace is noticed by this newspaper, which believes
Turkish armies in Palestine, amounting in all to about a hur that it is genuine, but asks Americans to remember that the Bulgarian "renunciation" of conquests did not come until the
thousand men, the Seventh and Eighth, west of the Jos Bulgarian armies in Macedonia were broken by the Servians.
were completely destroyed in the main battle. The Fc Similarly, the New York Journal of Commerce quotes André
army was driven from several of its bases on the Hejaz rai Chéradame as declaring that Servia is a great graveyard and
and is menaced by the Arabs on one side and the British fc “her population has been systematically butchered by the
on the other. The German Field-Marshal Liman von San Bulgarians with German approval," and declares that “it would commanding these armies, barely escaped with his staff. be to trifle with one of the gravest of war-issues to make it easy
There is a Teutonic touch in the official statement from for Bulgaria to find a place of repentance by providing a light Constantinople War Office that “the English follow us penalty for her flagrant treachery and entirely Teutonic con
step by step.” But these steps, editors and war-correspond tempt for the dictates of humanity.” But the Boston Globe note, are bringing the British forces near to Aleppo and Damas believes there are reasons for considering Bulgaria “less a Allenby's attack, the New York Evening Sun believes, will s member of the international criminal band than one of its tools." be followed by an advance up the Euphrates of the forces un
The destruction of Turkish power in Palestine has naturally General Marshall, and “the ultimate purpose of these co captured the imagination of our editorial writers, especially manders is to form a junction at Aleppo, at present some since the fighting was done on historic fields and since the miles from each." Aleppo "might be called the key to bstrategy of the victor was so brilliant. After several months of Syria and Mesopotamia," we read in the New York Even apparent inactivity, but actually of incessant preparation, Post. A British force landed at Alexandretta could eas General Allenby struck on the morning of September 19. His
march to that railroad center and sever communications betwe troops, as the Boston Transcript notes, pushed “across the plain Constantinople and Syria and Mesopotamia. The Turk of Armageddon, where Deborah and Barak hurled Sisera and armies could then only escape, in The Evening Post's opinion, his nine hundred chariots of iron into the River Kishon and the completely abandoning Syria amd Mesopotamia. stars in their courses fought against Sisera." While the main The fact that the United States is not officially at war wi British army fought its way northward through the Turkish Turkey or Bulgaria irks some of our editors. The Republica lines over the Samarian hills, we read in the New York Times, Philadelphia Public Ledger, Boston Transcript, and Omaha B "a flanking force, headed by cavalry brilliantly used by a are inclined to agree with the New York Tribune (Rep.), whi commander who is himself a cavalry officer, drove up the coast says: “Let us get into the Eastern battle-line before it is to and cut across the enemy's rear by a maneuver which seems to late." Other dailies, however, believe that the President ha have been as notably successful as any that has ever been seen sufficient reason for not asking for a declaration of war.
INDEX TO MAP OF THE BALKAN FRONT. LETTERS AND FIGURES REFER TO SQUARES ON MAP OPPOSITE.
English and various Balkan usages. Spellings used here follow the British official staff maps.
Gr. G 4
Gr. E 6 Leftera
Gr. E 9
Ser, C5 Gyergyan.. Alb. D 2
Alb. B 1 Leftera Bay Gr. E 9
Ser. D 4 Lenia (mt.) . Alb. E 3
Alb. B 3 (mt.).
Alb. C 1 Kishevoda, Ser. B 4 Leshnitsa, Alb. G 2
Gr. D 8 Levani.
Alb. E 1
Gr. E 8 Liaki..
B 8 Dubrava
Bul. C 9
Alb. E 3
Gr. E 6 Dukati
Alb. F 1
.Bul. B 9
Ser. B 5 Likovan
Gr. D 8
Ser. À 4
Bul. A 7 Ha lriye
Ser. B 6 Litohoros.
Alb. C 2 Haji-Beifik.. Gr. D 8 Kocharinovo Bul. B 8 Little Prespa Lake. Gr. E 4
Gr. D 9
Alb. B 2 Haji-Vunus Gr. D7 Kondino.. Ser. B 6 Little Thaso Island.Gr. E 10
Gr. F 3 Livunovo,
Bul. A 7
Mo. A 3 Helmas..
Alb. E 3
Alb. E 2
Gr. F 3 Köprülü.
Alb. D 3 Korab Planina
Longos (peninsula).Gr. F 9
Gr. G6 Hotla
Ser. B 5 (mt.).... Alb.-Ser. C3 Lower Bukovtse... Ser. A 5
Alb. D 2 Hrupishta Gr. F 4 Korcha,
Alb. E 3 Lower Lipovik Ser. C 6
Ser. D6 Koril.
Gr. E 4 Lozen Planina (mt.)Bul. A 8
Gr. G3 Koritss..
Alb. B 1
Gr. E 4 Ibalya..
Gr. E 5
Bul. C 8 Lubin
Alb. E 2
Alb. B 2
Alb. B 3 Luboyna,
Ser. D 4
Gr. D 7 Kosovets.
Ser. B 4
Alb. F 2 Ihtiman.
Gr. G 3 Lukovitsa. Ser. B 4
Alb. G 2
Bul. D 10 Ilye (river). Bul. C 10 Kostretsi.
Alb. F 3 Lunga...
Alb. E 3
Gr. E 7 Ipek.
3 Kovachevtsi. Bul. A 8 Lungara Dagh
Alb. C 2 Ishmi.
Alb. C i Koyani. Gr. F 5 (mts.). Alb. F 1
Alb. B 2 Ishtib
Alb. B 2
Gr. G4 Chaleis (dist.). Gr. F 7 Fani (river) Alb. C2 Iskar (river). Bul. A 8 Krabe (mts.). Alb. D 2 Lush Pass Alb.-Mo. A 3
.Ser. D 4 Luzias (river). See
Gr. G6 Kara Asmak. Gr. E 6
Gr. E 4 Krasnovo.
Bul. A 10 Lyabovo... Alb. F 2
Alb. E 3 Fieri
, Alb. C 3 Krasta (mt.) Alb. D 2 Lyaskoviki. Alb. F 3
Alb. D 1 Lyaskovits. Gr. G 4
Alb. E 1 Jerovyane. .Ser. B 4 Kravasta Inlet Alb. D 1 Lyulin Planina (mt.)Bul. A 7
Alb. B 3
Bul. C8 Lyush na.. Alb. D 2
Gr. F 4 Kresna Bridge. Bul. C8 Macedonia (dis.)...Gr. F 4
Alb. C 1 | Kresna Pass. Bul. B 7 Madjarlik. Ser. B 5
Ser. D 4
Gr. E 4
Gr. D 6 Malakasi
Alb. D 1 Fyeri
Bul. B 7 Kriva (river). Ser. B 6 Malevitza (mt.)...Bul. B 8
Alb. A 2 Junche
Ser. C 6 Mali Pshkashit
Alb. C 2
Alb. E 2 Malik Lake. Alb. E 3
Alb, E 1 Krupnik
Bul. B 8 Malkanidje (mt.). .Gr. E 5
Gr. D 8 Krusha.
Ser. A 3 Manchu (mt.). Bul. B 8
Mandalovo. Gr. E 6
Ser. C 4
Bul.-Ser. A 6 Garmania,
Alb. C 2 Kalabaka.. Gr. G5 Krushevitsa.. Ser. D 5 Maritza (river). Bul. & 9
Gr. E 10 Krushevo.
Alb. F 2
Alb. E 2 Kalamuti Bay.
Ser. C4 Mashchani. Alb. E 2
Alb. D 1 Kalaya.
Gr. E 8
Alb. C 1
Alb. E 1
Alb. C 3 Gilan..
.Ser. C 6 Mavropulo. Alb. G 2
Ser. C4 Girejik
Gr. D 6
Alb. B 2 Kuchuk Beshik. Gr. E 8 Mazarachevo. Bul. A 7
Gr. E 7 Kalmi.
Alb. E 1 Kukush
Alb. F 1
Ser. D 4 Kalyani.
Gr. C 8 Megalo Keserle.... Gr. G6
Bul. B 8
Gr. D 8 Melnik
Alb. D 2 Kara..
Gr. E 8 Moreni.
Alb. D 1
Gr. F 5 Merlera Island Gr. G1
Alb. F 3
Alb. D 1 Karadagh-Raja-
(mts.)....Bul.-Gr. C 10 Meshchishta Ser. D 3
Alb. B 2 Meshkeli (mts.) Gr. G 3
Alb. D 3 Karaferia
Gr. E 9
Ser, C5 Karajakeui.. Gr. E 7 Kuta..
Alb. F 2 Mesta (river). Gr. C9
Ser, D4 Karajeli
Gr. E 6 Mesta-Karasu
Gr. E 6
(river). Bul. B 8
Alb. D 3 Metali
Alb. E 2
Ser. D 4
Bul. A 8 Mifoli
Alb. E 1
Bul. B 7 Gradets.
Ser. C4 Mikro Palihor. Gr. E 6
Alb. D 1 Gradishta
Gr. D 8 Military Station... Gr. E 7
Alb. D 3
Gr. E 5 Karnofolya. Bul. A 10 Lake Amatovo.. Gr. D7 Mirovche Station. Ser. D 6
Gr. 1 Lake Beshik Gr. E 8 Mitnyovo.. Bul. C8
Gr. F 3 Kashisht.
Ser. B 6
Alb, E 2 Kashitza..
Gr. E 8
Lake Langaza Gr. E 7
Ser. D 4
Alb. D 1 Kastoria.
Gr. E 4 Lake Lanja Gr. E 8 Moglena (dist.). Gr. p 5
F 4 Katerini,
Alb. E 2
Ser. D 4
Gr. F 4 Kavalar
Gr. E 7 Ohrida L. Alb.-Ser. D3 Monastirets. Ser. C4
Ser. D 4
Gr. D 10 Lake Ohrida . . Ald.-Ser. D 3 Monopishte Gr. E 6
Alb. F 1 Kavaya
Alb. D 1 Lake Ostrovo.. Gr. E 5 Montenegro (kgd.). A 1
Alb. E 2
Alb. E 1 Kayalar
Gr. E 5 Lake Prespa Ser. D 4 Morihovo (dist.)... Ser. D5
Alb. D 2 Lake Skutari. Alb.-Mo. A 1 Moschopolis. See
Gr. C 10 Lake Tahinos. Gr. D 8 Moskopole. Alb. E 3
Moskopole.. Alb. E 3
Mount Athos Gr. F 9
Gr. E 4 Mount Lenia. Alb. E 3
Gr. F 6
Ser. B 5 Langavuk.
Gr. DS Langaza
Ser. D 6
Bul. C 10
Langaza Stream Gr. E 7 Mulyani Island. Gr. F 9
Gr. E 8 Munjunus .Gr. D 10
Gr. F 4 Gurikuch
Bul. B 8
Gr. F 4 Mushutishte..
Ser. A 4
Gr. G6 (Continued on page 12)
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