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heard no more on earth sound in his ears, done- he has entered into rest. Grace, and the forms of faithful fellow-workers sur-mercy, and peace be multiplied unto them, round the holy altar, as he recalls that con- whether still with us, or dwelling in radiant vention of the Diocese when the faithful few light with the Master they served so well. came together to celebrate the Eucharistic Their labors we well may emulate, their virfeast, and receive from their new Bishop, tues we well may imitate; their mistakes are, whose years of apostolic toil lay all before or will be, buried in their graves. By them him, the benediction they so long had craved. the founding of the Church was And now for many years has the seed
" 'Mid toil and tribulation, been sown, and the sheaves are being gath
And tumult of her war." ered in. Far down the long vistas of the May we of later, easier days, be as earnest, future the work will go on, long after the as self-sacrificing, as true-hearted, as the piolast of the pioneer clergy has fallen asleep, neer clergy of our Church, who built our after-the toil accomplished, the labor well Zion on the shores of the sunset sea.
Edgar 1. Lion.
POINTS AS TO CALIFORNIA EDUCATION.
Who should be an accomplished gentle who is such in any complete sense, is an acman? Every man. The President of the complished gentleman. United States, or any hired laborer, should Moreover, California causes have proas nearly as he can be an accomplished gen- duced strong character in its people. The tleman.
young men of such a people require a trainNobody will deny this of the highest po- ing not merely cosmopolitan in its scope, sitions, lay or clerical, professional, political, but peculiarly strenuous and efficient in its commercial or mechanical. Since a laboring spirit and methods. Strong-even wildman in America is liable to be called up young men, appropriately trained, make the to the highest positions, it is true of him. noblest adults. A whole university-full of Where a laboring man can never become a “Mad Bismarcks” would make a splendid ruler, he might with less obvious unsuitable- lot of leaders for the next political generation. ness be a brute.
3. Education for the Rich. Some useful Whether this standard of attainment is object in life is much more requisite now for reached at all, and the degree in which it is “higher classes ” of any sort than for a long reached, must depend chiefly upon the train- time back. In Europe, for instance, this ing of each individual before he becomes need is felt. The youth of royal or noble or responsible for himself. The age for learning wealthy families are on system trained to be good habits in everything—the age for learn- infinitely more useful citizens than in the ing everything-is youth.
eighteenth century. In fact, Europe is But California has peculiar needs in ahead of the United States in this matter. respect to this training. A cosmopolitan com- No want is more distinctly visible in this munity, cast together under the extraordinary country than the almost total want of an Edcircumstances which formed California, and ucation for the Rich. The poor are, in this still retaining so much that is exceptional in matter, in comparison magnificently provided its character, as California society does, has for; but “the rich are sent empty away.” special need of a cosmopolitan quality of As fast as great fortunes become numerous, training for the young. Now a cosmopolitan very much faster does the folly of the sons
of the fortune-makers stare out upon society. live and exercise out-doors, work at farming A fool or lout is displayed with horrid prom or gardening, walk and run and ride and inence in the lurid light of spendthrift wealth. camp out, and shoot and fish and sail and
The point where self-control and responsi- swim. bility begin is where the young man's life 5. Classical or Scientific ? The best educeases to be under daily and constant super- cation is, to learn all you can, both of knowvision. This point is where a youth goes ing and doing. To this end, all the mastery away from home for business or study. No should be gained that is possible, both of clearer demarcation line can be drawn be- language and of fact. It is needless to add tween school and college or university than in habit and in thought; for good training that arising at this point, and conditioned by in languages and in facts must develop right this assumption of self control. School is a habits and thinking power. A usual descrip. continuation of home; college is a preface tion of these two departments is to call them to life. Supervision at school is quasi-par- classical and scientific. There is a strong ental; at college it is (or should be) quasi- tendency at present to advocate a supposed public.
scientific training as distinct from a classical 4. The Earth. An important element for one, and to substitute modern languages for the best home and school training, far too Latin and Greek. But Latin and Greek, often neglected, especially for town and city while they have sometimes been over-valued youth, is the earth element. Man is of his and over-taught, are indispensable parts of mother, the Earth. In cities, an armor of an accomplished gentleman's education, and pavements shuts him off from her bosom, so they are of a sound scientific education. and stairs and elevators lift him away from Their usefulness in learning general gram. it. Accordingly, families run out in a gen- mar, the philosophy of language, the logic of eration or two of city life, unless there is a thought and speech, cannot be equalled by constant, regular recourse to the country for any other language whatever. English canmore vitality. The city is a sink-hole, a bot- not be understood without Latin. No scitomless pit, into which the stream of rural entific nomenclature can be extended, or mashealth and strength steadily pours and dis- tered, or used, without Latin and Greek. appears. The story of Antæus and Hercules Neither history, literature nor philology can is (for the present purpose) an allegory of the be competently studied in any full and comstruggle of man with city civilization. As plete sense without them. Even a wholethis civilization lifts man off the earth, he sale grocer or a mining engineer would all weakens. In proportion as he comes back his life be a shrewder, and wiser practical to her, he strengthens. When kept quite man for having a good knowledge of Latin off her, he is quickly destroyed. Therefore, and Greek. So would a hired laborer. For all youth, and city youth most of all, should if he have the abilities and attainments which be kept as much and as long as possible in one must have who has got so far forward as constant and intimate relations with the old to know Latin and Greek, it is morally cermother Earth. Thus will the independent tain that he can soon litt himself above the period of life be begun with a maximum undesirable position of a hired laborer. capital of vitality, sure to be exhausted quite 6. Preparatory Schools. High grade presoon enough in the fervent and often furious paratory schools are a necessary introduction competitions of our present social condition. to high grade collegiate institutions. There This does not mean (as a scoffer or tramp is no reason in the nature of things, why the might argue) that one should (so to speak) University of California and our other collocate a farm upon his person. The doc. leges may not afford an education in every trine does not imply anything other than the particular at least as good as any other instimost delicate cleanliness. It means that a tution on the continent. But whatever facil. boy and a youth should as much as may be ities these institutions may have within them
selves, that equality cannot be maintained requirentents above implied. There are exwithout preparatory schools as good as any cellent preparatory schools in the State, but on the continent.
they are not designed to fill exactly the same Some situations are good for an academ- place as the strictly rural, select family ical school, and some are not. No school school, which has hitherto been lacking here, can render the best service in a city except and cannot, therefore, from the nature of to pupils who live in their own homes. Such the case, meet all the demands just outlined. a school, in fact, should be as far away from Yet no State is properly provided with preeverything except the country as it can be paratory education, in which High Schools without being too far.
and large Academies are not supplemented The whole atmosphere, discipline, life, of by these select schools, that the needs of such an institution as California requires, all classes of the community may be met. should not only teach morality, but should The Pacific Coast holds a strong and growbe morality. American life needs training in ing community. One such school will quickhonor more peremptorily than is the case in ly be followed by more. It is the first of a any other community, for the obvious reason class which marks the epoch of a class. It is that individual freedom is greater. Call the because this is such that we have thus passed total of influences to keep a man pure and in review the onerous and difficult elements noble, one hundred. If ninety parts of this of the complex problem that any such insafeguarding total are laws enacted from out- stitution must solve ; it is as such that we reside of him, he needs only ten of personal cord the establishment and features of the honor and self-control. But in America not new institution at Belmont. Its site is more than ten parts are enacted law; in probably not inserior in natural beauty to California not more than one part. There any in California, being in the bosom of a fore, an American needs to be governed nine. lovely little valley among the hills near Beltenths by his own self-control and by consid- mont. The estate would have been acquirerations of personal honor; and a Californian, ed by the late Mr. Ralston for a residence ninety-nine hundredths. Let this doctrine instead of that now known as Belmont, which be practiced for the next twenty-five years, he did buy, and which is now owned by Mr. and we shall see clean politics in California. Sharon ; but it could not then be purchased.
Religion should be taught in such a school He did, however, subsequently buy it, and it so as not to destroy the religious teachings has since his death been occupied by Mrs. of any home, and so as to strengthen the Ralston. The property possesses a curious foundations of every home belief. This rule assemblage of city and country merits. It implies not indoctrination, but training in lies in the quiet, rustic solitude of its valley, right life; not theology, but morality; not with wooded hills all around, and one single sectarianism, but respect for all sincere be picturesque view into the distance eastward lief; not so much precise drill in forms and between the hills across the southern part of precepts, as the influence of a pure moral San Francisco Bay. And the land is thoratmosphere, and the result of constant guid- oughly underlaid with a system of irrigation ance in well-doing; and it needs the regular pipes; a reservoir up among the hills secures and serious fulfillment of sufficient institu- a perennial water supply; and the gas-works tional observances.
on Mr. Sharon's property will furnish the
second of the two chief privileges of city These reflections are suggested by an oc- housekeeping. There is not another house currence that marks a positive and real new in sight except the Belmont mansion across departure in the educational history of Cali- the valley. There is hardly even a village fornia : the establishment of the first high at the railroad station, and even this is a grade preparatory school of that particular mile away and out of sight. The house and class which is so designed as to satisfy all the offices are roomy, elegant, and modern, and
have that peculiar solidity and thoroughness identify himself with an important forward of construction which seems to have belonged step in the educational improvement of this to all the buildings erected by Ralston. In coast. short, the estate is a lonely country farm, Our Academical Problem. Let the new with a fine city house on it, and city conven- Belmont School succeed, and let a compeiences all over it—a singular aggregation of tent number of schools of like high aims and contradictory attractions. It meets the het- abundant and appropriate equipment arise erogeneous requirements which have been set after it, and one of the most important forth in this paper after a fashion which could problems for California's future will have hardly have been more prophetic had Mr. been solved. The gambling era of CaliforRalston consulted the writer with the inten- nia is closed. The increase of small farms tion of preparing the place for a boys' school. and growing variety of legitimate industries
The reputation of Mr. W. T. Reid, the will, in due time, answer the hoodlum queshead of the rew institution, is even a better tion, and the tramp question, and the Chiguarantee for the practical merit of the in- nese question. This industrial movement is stitution than are locations and fittings for already solidifying perceptibly the very founits mere lodging. Mr. Reid, as everybody dations of genuine and healthy sociological in California knows, has for the last four conditions in California. It is in higher years been President of the University of grades of improvement, preëminently in eduCalifornia. As such, he has had both friends cational improvement, that we must trust for and opponents; but the attitude of the Bel- the symmetrical completion of the social edimont School towards the University is en- fice. When we shall possess our full proportirely friendly, and vice versa, so far as the tion of means for the higher training of youth, writer knows; and both friends and oppo- objects will have been secured which no innents would argue that Mr. Reid is certainly dustrial conditions could attain. To solid no worse fitted to prepare students for the and legitimate industrial prosperity will be University in consequence of having been added the purity of politics, the reform of its President. His previous professional abuses, and the development of a genuinely experience as assistant in the famous'Boston and highly cultivated society. Such schools Latin School and as principal of the Boys' as the Belmont School will perform a work High School of San Francisco, is ample impracticable by any other agency, playing evidence of his technical fitness; and it an important part in supplying to American would be at least superfluous to indorse him society an element not less important than personally, or to enumerate the offers which any other whatever, and in American society he has declined of high educational posi- peculiarly necessary, yet hitherto compartions elsewhere, from a laudable ambition to atively lacking-accomplished gentlemen.
THE RUSSIANS AT HOME AND ABROAD.1-4
For the last eighteen months we have number, and in the rare cases of which we heard little of the Nihilists. Attempts, even, have had intelligence, not directed at either at assassination, seem to have been few in the Czar or any of the higher Russian offi
1 The Russians at the Gates of Herat. By Chas. 8 The Russian Revolt. By Edmund Noble. Boston: Marvin, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. 1885. Houghton, Miftlin & Co. 1885. l'or sale in San FranFor sale in San Francisco by A. L. Bancroft & Co. cisco by Chilion Beach.
: Russia Under the Tzars. By Stepniak. Rendered 4 Afghanistan and the Anglo-Russian Dispute. By into English by Wm. W'estall. New York : Charles Theo. F. Rodenburgh, Bvt. Brig. Gen. U. S. A. New Scribner's Sons. 1885. For sale in San Francisco by York : G. P. Putnam's Sons. 1885. For sale in San A L. Bancroft & Co.
Francisco by Strickland & Pearson.
cials. At first glance it would appear that posed to every one of its traditions, to the the leaders of the revolt, either exhausted by whole genius of the race;-one which, in this past efforts, or finally borne to earth by the last quarter of the nineteenth century, prerepressive measures of the government, had sents to the world a most astounding paradox abandoned their terrible enterprise.
-seventy-five million people looking back, At a superficial view, such would seem to while all the rest of the world is looking forbe the case; but to those acquainted with ward And singularly enough, the very forRussia beneath the surface it has long been ces which elsewhere have contributed to the apparent that Nihilism-or that revolution- growth of popular liberty, have in Russia ary movement which is known to us of the proved the most efficient allies of despotism; West by the name of Nihilism, but which is the influence of Byzantine Christianity (as far broader in reality than Nihilism alone Mr. Noble shows) has steadily contributed -is chronic in the Russian body politic, and toward the growth and perpetuation of the that whatever pause may come in the efforts autocratic system, so that not the army, but of the revolutionists will prove to be but a the Church, is its strongest support. breathing-time, after the expiration of which Could a vote today be taken, of the inteltheir fight against absolutism will be renewed ligence and education of Russia, upon the with greater vigor than before. To make maintenance of Czarism, it is probable that this clear to the American mind seems to not one-tenth of these would be found suphave been the object of Mr. Edmund Noble porting it; but unfortunately, Russian intelin writing his monograph, “The Russian ligence and education are concentrated withRevolt," and to his task he seems to have in a very small proportion of the whole peo brought a knowledge of Russian history, a ple. Despotism finds its stronghold among familiarity with Russian ideas and ways of the brutish millions who still look up, from thought, acquired on the ground, and hence the murk of ignorance which the Church and of the greatest value both to author and autocracy have caused, to the Czar as their readers For, far as we are removed from “Little Father,” and upon whom all effort at the great Slav Empire in material distance, enlightenment seems lost. Aware of nothing we are much further separated in traditions, better, they remain true to the present syshabits of thought and social, political and in- tem. dustrial ideas; indeed, the Slav has little more And what a system it is! The late Emin common with the Anglo-Saxon (save his peror is credited with the remark: “There color) than has the latter with the Chinaman. is only one man in Russia who does not
Thus it is that a protracted residence in steal, and I am that man.” But dishonest Russia, such as Mr. Noble seems to have business and administrative methods are had, has been of inestimable benefit in fitting the least among the evils for which Czarhim for the task which he has so successfully ism is responsible. There is absolute accomplished. He has been enabled to enter concurrence of opinion among all obserrinto Russian life, to study types and charac- ers, that the repressive measures of the gov. teristics; and as a result has given to our ernment are crushing out the intellect of public by far the clearest, most intelligent, Russia. Both “Stepniak" and the author of and concise account and explanation of the “The Russian Revolt” are united upon this. Russian revolt so far written in English. Says the former : It is interesting to speculateupon the future
“The despotism of Nicholas crushed full-grown of Russia, social and governmental. No peo- men. Tho despotism of the two Alexanders did not ple has ever been placed under similar condi- give them time to grow up. They threw themselves tions. Growing with the growth of the Em
on immature generations, on the grass hardly out of pire, and gaining strength with each of its what other cause can we look for the desperate ster
the ground, to devour it in all its tenderness. To extensions, an autocratic system has fastened ility of modern Russia in every branch of intellectual itself upon the Russian people, which is op- work? Our contemporary literature, it is true, boasts