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endorse their chief. They commenced with upon me in terms of the greatest familiarity, the words: “ Eternal glory to the illustrious ‘Ho! Bautista, come here, I want to speak champion and liberator of the Department to you'— Bautista here'—“Bautista there' of Alta California, Don José Castro, the -and 'Bautista everywhere!'” All this, or guardian of order and the supporter of something like it, may have been true; and our superior government.” They then de. yet the inference, suggested by Robinson clared that that day was, and forever would and drawn by some of his readers, that the be, held glorious by the inhabitants of arrest and expulsion were therefore instigated California, as the one in which their fellow- by offended dignity, does not by any means countryman had gone to present to the necessarily follow. Such a supposition hardsupreme government of the Mexican nation ly comports with Alvarado's known characa grand prize of American suspects, who, ter, shown during a long life and exhibited filled with ambition but under the dark mask on many trying occasions. Nor is it likely of deceit, had been enveloping the people that a man who wielded, as he did, almost in the web of misfortune and disgrace, in- unlimited power, whose dixit in his sphere volving them in the greatest dangers and was equal to that of a Cæsar, could have confusions, threatening to destroy the lives found any difficulty in preserving all the digof their governor and all his subalterns, and nity he desired. Unlettered men, like Grato drive them from their asylums, their coun- ham and his associates, feel a natural respect try, their pleasures, and their hearths. The for their superiors, and particularly for their vessel, they went on to say, in which the val- superiors in high official position. The suporous hero was carrying out his great com- position, consequently, that offended dignity mission, was covered with laurels, crowned was the motive that induced Alvarado to orwith triumphs, and went ploughing the seas der Graham's arrest, is scarcely entitled to and publishing in loud tones to the waves consideration. In fact, Robinson himself adthe vivas and rejoicings which would resound mits that Alvarado was firmly persuaded of to the uttermost extremes of the universe. an intention on the part of Graham to revoIn view of the distinguished services thus ren- lutionize the country. On the other hand, dered by their chief, it was their duty, they it appears from a proclamation, issued by continued, to treasure him in the center of Cosme Peña at Los Angeles in May, 1840, their hearts and in the depths of their souls, that the Branciforte ill-doers had resisted the and to make known, in the name of the in- alcalde of that place; that the alcalde had habitants, the exceeding joy with which they complained to the government; that the govwere filled ; at the same time giving to the ernment had cautioned them; that instead of superior government the present proclama- obeying they had armed themselves and detion, made in honor of that worthy chief, and fied the authorities, and that it was in conseassuring the governor that, notwithstanding quence of this and their threats that they had the well-deserving Castro might be absent, been arrested. Antonio Maria Osio also there still remained subject to the orders of states that when William Chard, one of the government all the subscribers, his com- Graham's associates, was arrested, he exhibpatriots, friends, and companions in arms. ited abject fear; confessed that he had con

As has been said, it is a matter of con- spired against the government; begged not siderable doubt whether any regular plan of to be shot, and offered to inform on all bis revolution had in fact ever been formed by associates. Graham. Alfred Robinson states that there About thirty days after the sailing of Caswere no facts to prove anything of the kind. tro and his prisoners, the United States corHe reports Alvarado as saying: “I was in- vette St. Louis, Captain J. B. Forrest, arsulted at every turn by the drunken follow- rived at Monterey from Mazatlan. On June ers of Graham; and when walking in the gar- 14, Captain Forrest addressed a letter to Alden, they would come to its wall and call varado, stating that he had been informed of

a very cruel outrage committed in the coun- petent authority on an accusation of conspirtry against the persons and property of certain acy, in connection with three other individAmerican citizens; that they had been seized, uals, to overthrow the government; that his put in irons, thrown into a horrible prison, arrest had been resisted by himself and his confined there from ten to fifteen days, and companions, and it was only in making such then placed on board a vessel under strict resistance that Naile had been wounded; that guard, and shipped to San Blas ; that of the property of the arrested persons had been these persons Mr. Isaac Graham and Mr. secured and inventoried in the presence of Henry Naile, both respectable and peaceful witnesses, and what had not already been recitizens of the United States employed in stored was only held because no properly auextensive commercial business, had been thorized person had asked for it; that Graseized by armed men at night, in their pri- ham was neither a peaceable nor a respectavate chambers, and haled forth like criminals; ble citizen; that his business, instead of being that Naile had been seriously wounded; and such as Captain Forrest had been informed, that the house in which they had their resi- was none other than an illegal traffic in dence and property, being left without pro- aguardiente, which gathered around him a tection, had been sacked and robbed of ev- crowd of vicious neighbors and daily occaerything of value. Captain Forrest further sioned the most scandalous disorders; that stated that, according to his inforination, the he had been cautioned by the justices of the authors of this inhuman and atrocious act peace, but only answered with threats, and in had been allowed to go free, without any le- every way abused the hospitality he had regal proceedings being taken against them. ceived in the country; and that, so far as a Under the circumstances, he considered it judicial investigation was concerned, the his duty to request his Excellency to cause charges against Graham and the other actheir immediate arrest, and to institute a full, cused persons had been regularly made out impartial, and public investigation as to their and transmitted with the prisoners for trial conduct.

before the supreme tribunal of the republic Alvarado answered a few days subsequent- at Mexico. The facts, he continued, would ly. He said that within a few years past a convince Captain Forrest that there had been number of foreigners had entered the coun no such outrage or attack upon the persons try without the formalities required by law; or property of citizens of the United States that most of them were deserters from ves as he had been informed ; and if the governsels which had arrived on the coast, some ment had been provoked to enforce the rigor belonging to one nation and others to oth- of the law, it was only against a pernicious ers; that by the laws of Mexico the govern- class of vagabonds, deserters, and horsement was authorized to remove all such per- thieves. There were numerous citizens of sons from the territory, and had exercised le- the United States, as well as other foreigngitimate powers in sending them to the dis- ers, in the country; and as long as they purposition of the supreme government of the sued any honest industry, there was no disnation ; that, in the absence of war vessels position on the part of the government to or authorized agents of the nations to which disturb them, even though they had no licensuch persons belonged, and to whom they ses; nor would Graham and his associates might otherwise have been delivered, such have been disturbed if they had been of the removal to Mexico was the best disposition class thus represented. In conclusion, he that could be made; that some of the per- protested that he was as desirous as any one sons so removed were thieves and robbers, could be to respect and protect the citizens of and were found in possession of large num- the United States, as well as all others, in bers of horses, which had been stolen ; that their rights of person and property; to comply Isaac Graham, to whom particular reference in all particulars with everything prescribed had been made, had been arrested by com- by treaty or the law of nations, and to pre

serve undisturbed and uninterrupted the and three or four others were charged with relations of friendship and reciprocity hith. conspiracy; the others appear to have been erto existing between Mexico and the United sent off as general bad characters, dangerous States.

to the peace of the territory. But in each case This answer seems to have ended the cor- regular charges were formulated and transrespondence between Forrest and Alvarado. mitted to the minister of the interior. AlvaBut about the beginning of July, Alvarado rado also wrote a very lengthy document exwent to San José and while there he re. plaining the charges; and for proofs referceived a communication from David Spence, ence was made to the testimony which would who, as alcalde, had been left in charge of be furnished by Castro who had been duly Monterey, stating that Captain Forrest de accredited as a commissioner to the supreme sired to know when he would return. Spence government. further wrote that there had been rumors cur When the “ Joven Guipuzcoana” arrived rent of an intended attack by Forrest upon at San Blas, the cornandante of that place, the town, and a seizure of the person of the on account of some misunderstanding, orgovernor; but that Forrest himself had as- dered the arrest of Castro; and he was for sured him that there was not a word of truth a few hours thrown into prison. News of in the rumors; that he not only had no in- this arrest reached California by the bark tention, but no authority to make any attack; “Clarita," in July, and caused great excitethat, on the contrary, he was about to department. But in September, upon the return with his vessel from Monterey, and that he of the “ Joven Guipuzcoana,” it was ascerdesired, before leaving, the pleasure of an tained that the imprisonment bad not only interview with the governor, to personally not been made upon the order of the governmanifest to him his friendship and give him ment, but that on the contrary, as soon as proofs that the injurious reports that had been the government at Mexico had been incirculated were entirely without foundation. formed of Castro's arrival, it had invited him Alvarado replied, that, as Spence very well to come directly to the capital. His prisknew, the disturbed state of the interior re oners, in the meanwhile, were removed to quired his presence at San José and other Tepic and incarcerated there. As soon as more remote points ; that he ought to have the government could look into their cases, left Monterey much earlier than he did, but it ordered Isaac Graham, Albert Morris, Wilhad delayed twenty days for the purpose of liam Chard, and Jorge José Bonilo, who answering any further communication that were charged with conspiracy and attempted Captain Forrest might have desired to make, revolution, to be kept in close confinement; and that if he had waited longer, the conse- while of the others, such as were married with quences of neglecting the interior might have Mexican women should be released on givbeen disastrous. He begged Spence to in- ing bonds, and the rest expelled from the form Captain Forrest of the facts; to tender country, care being taken that they should his regrets at not being able to meet him as not return to California. Subsequently, howproposed ; to make a ceremonial visit in his ever, at the solicitation of the United States name; and to assure him, that, so far as the envoy-extraordinary, this sentence was modirumors to which reference had been made fied as to Louis Pollock, John Higgins, Wilwere concerned, he did not consider them liam Boston, George Fraser, and Charles H. worthy of notice.

Cooper, who were granted letters of security The Graham party, so-called, which had and allowed to return to their former resibeen arrested by Castro and his soldiers, dences. consisted of about sixty persons; but not In December, Alvarado addressed several more than forty-five had been placed on other communications to the minister of the board the " Joven Guipuzcoana," and sent interior, setting forth the events which had 10 San Blas. Of these, only Graham himself occurred in California after Castro's depart

ure, and especially his correspondence with ernment to the subject of foreigners in the Captain Forrest. He explained that soon country. Lists were made out in the sumafter the interchange of letters, but before mer of 1840, for the purpose of giving all the Captain Forrest sailed, he had been obliged information that could be procured. From to leave Monterey on account of information these lists it appeared that there were sixteen that a party of adventurers from the United foreigners permanently residing at San FranStates had stolen three thousand horses be- cisco, not including Richardson, who was longing to the missions of San Luis Obispo then at Saucelito; thirty-one at San José; and San Gabriel and various private ranches, ten at Branciforte; somewhere about thirty at and were threatening further depredations; Monterey; thirty at Santa Barbara ; twentyand that when he returned to Monterey he three at Los Angeles; and seven at San found Captain Forrest had gone, leaving, Diego. These lists included only those however, a Mr. E. Estabrook as consular who had been naturalized, or who were agent of the United States at Monterey. He licensed to reside in the country. There further explained that he had corresponded were numerous others, chiefly Americans, with Estabrook and pointed out to him the who had come and remained without permisinformality of his appointment; and he also sion. These were scattered in various quartransmitted that correspondence. But the ters, but chiefly north of the bay of San Franmatter of most importance, and to which he cisco. Some were hunters and trappers, and desired to call especial attention, was the a few made a sort of business, with vagabond care and circumspection it was necessary to Mexicans, of horse-stealing, which appears to exercise in reference to the statements of have been a comparatively safe occupation such prisoners as had been discharged from for all except Indians. The latter were usuarrest, for the reason that those persons ally pursued, and as many shot down as would imagine that they could make great could be. In June, 1839, the ghastly head fortunes in the way of reclamations against of one of them, who had been decapitated, the Mexican nation, and they would not hes was stuck up as a warning in the plaza of itate to attempt it.

Santa Clara. In April, 1840, Vallejo, in givGraham and his special associates re- ing an account of a bloody expedition which mained in Mexico until the summer of 1842, he had just made against Indians in the neighwhen they were discharged. As several of borbood of Sonoma, intimated that they were them were citizens of the United States, and horse-thieves, connected with the hunters and the others of Great Britain, and as the repre- trappers of the Sacramento Valley, and thus sentatives of those nations interfered and in- justified himself for the slaughter he had sisted that there was nothing shown to justify made. their arrest and detention, the Mexican gov Among the foreigners who had thus found ernment deemed it prudent and politic not their way to and settled in California, in addionly to release the prisoners, but to fit them tion to those already mentioned, was Robert out in fine style, pay all their expenses, and Livermore, an English lad, who came in the send them back to California in a govern- employ of Juan Ignacio Mancisidor, about ment vessel. Accordingly, when they landed the year 1819. Mancísidor was a Spaniard, at Monterey, on their return, in July, 1842, engaged in trade in the country, who afterthey were neatly dressed, armed with rifles wards was obliged to leave on account of the and swords, and looked in better condition anti-Spanish legislation which followed the than when they were sent away. or probably Mexican revolution. Livermore, in the course than they had ever looked in their lives be of a few years, was baptized into the Catholic fore.

church, and received the baptismal name of The disturbances which had led to the ar- Juan Bautista Roberto Livermore, by which rest of Graham and his associates, called the he was afterwards generally known, in the especial attention of the departmental gov same manner as Captain Cooper, after his


Catholic baptism, became known as Juan he would dig a pit under the log to be saved, Bautista Rogers Cooper. Livermore was fol- thus making what was called a saw.pit. He lowed in 1821 by William Welsh. In 1822, and E. M. McIntosh afterwards became interbesides William A. Richardson, came William ested in the rancho called Estero Americano, Gulnac, an American, James Richard Berry, near Bodega. It was arranged between them an Englishman, Edward M. McIntosh, a that McIntosh should go to Monterey and Scotchman, and George Allen or, as he was procure a formal grant of it from the governafterwards known, José Jorge Tomas Allen, ment, which he accordingly did; but, instead an Irishman, all of whom became well known of acting in their joint names, he took the in the country.

In 1823, besides Captain papers out in his own alone, leaving Dawson Cooper, came Samuel and William Bocle, out. Upon ascertaining this fact, Dawson Englishmen, and William Smith, an Amer was so much incensed that he gave McIntosh ican. Smith was generally known as Bill a terrible beating, “breaking every bone in the Sawyer.” After roving about for a few his body” metaphorically speaking, and then, years, he married a California woman, settled taking his saw, he divided the house, which down in the Santa Cruz mountains, and had been built in partnership, into two parts, founded the nucleus of the aggregation of and moved his half off, determined thence. foreigners in that region already mentioned, forth to have nothing more to do with partand known as the Graham party. He was nerships than he could help. joined by James Peace, an English sailor, In 1825, Robert Ellwell and James who deserted from one of the Hudson Bay Thompson, Americans, and John Wilson, a Company's ships; and afterwards by Charles Scotchman, arrived. Ellwell used to boast Brown, who deserted from an American that he was a Whig, a Unitarian, and a Freewhaler about 1832, and John Copinger, an mason, and that if these three qualifications Irishman, who came to the coast about the would not take a man to heaven, nothing same time. Of Copinger it is related that a would. fond mother purchased for him a lieutenant's The year of 1826 brought John Wil. commission in the British navy, but that, son and George W. Vincent, Americans ; being either unruly or unwilling to be im- William D. Foxen, an Englishman ; David posed upon, he quarreled with his superior Littlejohn, a Scotchman; and John J. Read, officer, was reduced in rank, and made to an Irishman. Read, who came out on a voyfeel the severity of British naval discipline. age with an uncle, took such a fancy to the He managed in time to escape, and finally country that he determined to make it his found his way into the recesses of the Santa home, and declined any longer to follow a seaCruz mountains, where he lived in unques. faring life. He went first into the Petaluma tioned freedom, far from the reach of tyran- valley, but, being disturbed by the Indians, nous restraint. All these men married hi- soon afterwards moved down to the neighjas del pais,” and thus became connected borhood of Saucelito, some years subsequentwith old California families. They were at ly married Hilarita, daughter of José Anfirst engaged principally in the lumber busi- tonio Sanchez, obtained a land grant on the ness; and it was not until Graham set up his bay shore between Saucelito and San Rafael, still, and thus placed himself at the head of settled down and founded a large family. the old Santa Cruz population, that aguardi In 1827 came Henry D. Fitch, John ente gained the ascendency.

Temple, William G. Dana, Thomas M. RobAbout 1824 came Daniel A. Hill, an bins, George Rice and Guy F. Fling, AmerAmerican, David Spence and James McKin- icans; and John C. Fuller, an Englishman. ley, Scotchmen, and James Dawson, an Irish- Fitch, who afterwards sailed to South Amerman. Dawson is said to have been the first ica for the purpose of finding a priest that man to manufacture lumber in the country. would marry him to Josefa Carrillo, came He used a long rip-saw, to give play to which originally in the employ of Edward E. Vir

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