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where we now sit. It was fed by several has been subjected, in geological times, is tributaries. One from Mount Lyell, another something almost incredible. It is a comfrom Mono Pass, and still another from mon popular notion that mountain peaks Mount Dana, which uniting just above Soda are upheaved. No one can look about him Springs, the swollen stream enveloped yon- observantly in this high Sierra region and der granite knobs, five hundred feet high, retain such a notion. Every peak and val. standing directly in its path, smoothing and ley now within our view—all that constitutes rounding them on every side, and leaving the grand scenery upon which we now lookthem in form like a turtle's back; then com- is the result wholly of erosion-of mountain ing further down overflowed its banks at the sculpture. Mountain chains are, indeed, lowest point of yonder ridge—one thousand formed by igneous agency; but they are feet high—which we crossed this morning; afterwards sculptured into forms of beauty by and after sending an overflow stream down rain. But even this gives as yet no adeTenaya Cañon, the main stream passed on quate idea of the immensity of this erosion. down the Tuolumne Cañon, into and beyond Not only are all the grand peaks now within Hetch-Hetchy Valley. From its head foun- view, Cathedral Peaks, Unicorn Peak, Mount tain, in Mount Lyell, this glacier may be Lyell, Mount Gibbs, Mount Dana, the result traced forty miles.
of simple inequality of erosion, but it is alThe overflow branch which passed down most certain that the slates which form the the Tenaya Cañon, after gathering tributaries foothills, and over whose upturned edges we from the region of Cathedral Peaks, and passed from Snelling to Clark's, and whose enveloping, smoothing, and rounding the edges we again see, forming the highest grand granite knobs wbich we saw this morn crests on the very margin of the eastern ing just above Lake Tenaya, scooped out slope, originally covered the granite of this that lake basin, and swept on its way to the whole region many thousand feet deep. Yosemite. There it united with other streams, Erosion has removed it entirely, and bitten from Little Yosemite and Nevada Cañons, deep into the underlying granite. Now, you and from Illilouette, to form the Great Yo- are not to imagine that the whole, but cersemite Glacier, which probably filled that tainly a large portion of this erosion and the valley to the brim, and passed on down the final touches of this sculpturing, have been cañon of the Merced. This glacier, in its accomplished by the glacial action which I subsequent retreat, left many imperfect ter- have endeavored to explain. minal moraines, which are still detectible as rough debris piles just below the meadows. About 9 P. M., our clothing still damp, we Behind these moraines accumulated water, rolled ourselves in our damp blankets, lay forming lakes, which have gradually filled up upon the still wet ground, and went to sleep. and formed meadows. Some, as Mirror I slept well, and suffered no inconvenience. Lake, have not yet filled up. The meadows To anyone wishing really to enjoy camp-life of Yosemite, and the lakes and meadows of among the high Sierras, I know no place Tenaya Fork, upon which our horses grazed more delightful than Soda Springs. Being while we were at “University Camp,” were about nine thousand feet above the sea, the formed in this way. You must have ob- air is deliciously cool and bracing, and the served that these lakes and meadows are sep- water, whether of the spring or of the river, is arated by higher ground, composed of coarse almost ice-cold and the former is a gentle ; debris. All the lakes and meadows of this tonic. The scenery is nowhere more glorihigh Sierra region were formed in this way. Add to this, inexhaustible pasturage The region of good grazing is also the region for horses, and plenty of mutton, and trout of former glaciers.
abundant in the river, and what more can Erosion in High Sierra Region.—The ero- pleasure-seekers want ? sion to which this whole high Sierra region
Joseph Le Conte.
THE WYOMING ANTI-CHINESE RIOT.
It is not the purpose of this article to ex- been its tenor ; and this inference is supcuse the recent assaults upon Chinamen in ported by formerly expressed views of the Wyoming, and those threatened in Washing- orator on the floor of the United States Sen. ton Territory. It is repugnant to the sense ate. It would probably be impossible to of justice of Americans, as it is to their convince Mr. Hoar that the vast majority of humanitarian ideas, to make the individual the people of the Pacific Coast, who contest suffer for the inconvenience or disasters pro- Chinese immigration inch by inch by lawful duced by the masses. The number of per- means, detest as bitterly as any of his audisons who have taken pleasure in the annoy- tors could any personal assaults upon them. ance of individual Chinamen in California, Yet this is true ; and our Eastern legislators or have contributed to it, is comparatively can never comprehend this question until very small, while the number of those who they are able to draw a distinction between seriously deprecate the influx of this race, the desire of this people to peacefully and and seek to resist it, is overwhelming. It lawfully extirpate a great evil, as they see it, does not follow, as some of our Eastern crit- and the reckless and unthinking impulse of ics seem to believe, that because the Pacific a minority, that is impatient under Chinese Coast people are nearly a unit against Chi- absorption of its means of livelihood. nese immigration, and demand of the national It is true that such peaceful and lawful opgovernment adequate measures to prevent it, position to Chinese immigration is considthey are ready with the bowie knife and ered to be in itself an offense by our radical torch to massacre and expel the Chinamen opponents ; differing only in degree, not in now in their midst. On the contrary, there kind, from the crimes of violence to which would probably be as large a vote cast against we refer. It is unreasonable and unjust hossuch illegal violence upon the Chinese, if tility to the bettering of the condition of a occasion offered, as there has heretofore part of the human family! It is in defiance been, and would again be, cast for their perma- of God's law, who has “made of one blood nent exclusion. There is no necessary con- all the nations of the earth!” It is contrary nection between acts of cowardly aggression to the traditions of the fathers of the repubupon Chinamen, and earnest opposition to lic, who made this land the home of the opthe influx of this race to our shores. In pressed of all nations ! We are, therefore, fact, the clear-sighted opponents of Chinese inhuman, irreligious, and unpatriotic, because immigration see that every criminal act of we would exclude the Chinese ; and what oppression of this people tends to excite sym- more are those who put the torch to the hut pathy for them in Eastern circles, and fur- of the Chinaman, and shoot him as he flees nishes arguments deemed to be conclusive over the hills? These prepossessions against by a class of minds, why legislative measures us seem to those holding them to be groundto keep them out should be defeated. ed so deeply upon principle, that any argu
An Eastern senator, eminent for ability and ment drawn from the peculiarities of the personally very estimable, recently took oc- Chinese, their modes of life and acting, their casion to speak bitterly of the late assault propagation of disease and bad morals, their upon Chinese in Wyoming, and to class the absorption of the means of living, and excluopposition to the incoming of this people sion of white labor from employment, their therewith. From the imperfect report of the unassimilability to the American, their continspeech of the gentleman in question that uance as strangers in the land after years of has reached the writer, this seems to have residence, their entire want of characteris
tics (except industry) desirable in citizenship, compel obedience and submission to what and the overwhelming numbers in which the ruler may dictate. But this republic is they may be poured upon us; all these and not organized upon that plan, and is unable other kindred considerations are deemed as to cope with difficulties that arise from sudtouching only expediency, and are unworthy den gusts of popular passion. It must reof consideration when absolute right is in move causes of discontent, when possible, question. Were it not too serious, it would rather than rely upon suppressing it. be amusing, to observe how all such practi It is a singular fact that the Chinese, go cal objections to Chinese influx are waived where they will, soon become objects of inaside by the opponents of restrictive meas- tense dislike to native races. While it is ures. The writer once procured photographs difficult to detect all the subtle causes of this of lepers who were about being sent back dislike, some of them lie on the surface. to China, certainly hideous and repulsive to These have been urged over and over again, the last degree, and exhibited these pictures in all forms of explanation and with all earto senators as an evidence of one of the nestness of spirit, by the people of this coast, dangers to which the United States is ex- with but partial effect upon the dull ears of posed, by allowing the unrestrained coming Eastern legislators and executive officers. of Mongolians. The only observation he But one feature that follows Chinese immiobtained from the worthy gentlemen referred gration is now developing itself in the United to was that it was wrong to hold up to ridi. States, repressed by law and public opinion cule these unfortunate beings. If ridicule in great measure; but nevertheless ominous had been the object, the observation would of future mischief, as the Chinese greatly inhave been just. As illustrating the intro- crease in numbers, and make the conditions duction of a new and terribly loathsome dis- of life harder for the white laborer. Where ease--new to the United States, but as sure- the Chinese go, the latter can get the neces. ly accompanying the Chinese as do the smell saries of life for their families only in compeof opium and sandal-wood—the evidence tition with them, and the Chinese are not presented was worthy of deeper study. burdened with such encumbrances. Family
As the mixture of the elements of the old life is practically unknown to the Chinese in Asiatic civilization with those of our newer America. Only one wilfully blind can fail civilization distributes to the latter the seeds to see that the Caucasian race will not allow of this mysterious disease, so it involves con- itself to be expelled from this country, or tosequences to the political and social health tally impoverished, without a bloody struggle of our people. The insensibility of our op- to prevent it. If the law does not measure ponents to both is akin. Yet the fact that the difficulty and obviate it, the laboring the presence of Chinese in the workshops, masses will. This is not a threat; it is a in the mines, in all agricultural pursuits, prophecy. Such opposition is not a new leads to more or less frequent riots, in which feature elsewhere; though the conditions they are killed or their houses burned, is a under which it has been active have been reason why they should not be allowed to unfavorable to success. The Chinese are come in numbers. While the law should expert colonizers. They have crowded their protect them when here, and put down as way into all the islands and countries neighenemies of society those who molest them, boring to them by their numbers and perpublic policy dictates that public peaceshould sistency; but this only after the avant-garde not be made to rest solely on the strength had been many times massacred by the inand omnipresence the law. In semi-des- furiated natives, desirous of keeping alien potic countries, where a large military force hordes out of their country. Massacres have is always at hand, and the ordinary agents never deterred the Chinese. They seem of the law are numerous, and organized for rather to have stimulated their immigration. the work, it is possible to rely upon force to New ranks of Chinamen have always stepped
readily into the place of those falling, and patriotic, or else it must be conceded that so the invasions have gone on until resistance they think this to the interest of this country. was futile. Thus it has been in localities in Certainly, they would not sacrifice their own the vicinity of China. In this remote re. country for the advantage of China or Chigion there is better chance that violent ob- nese! Yet no fact is better known than struction might succeed. Yet the demorali- that mixed races are the most corrupt and zation consequent to our own people would worthless on earth, especially where one of be a fearful price to pay for a victory so the compounds is Asiatic. A learned Gergained, and it is to be deprecated on every man has said of mixed races : “To define ground of humanity and every principle of their characteristics correctly would be imself-interest. The alternative is exclusion by possible, for their minds partake of the mixlaw, and the measurable success which has at- ture of their blood. As a rule, it may be fairly tended the iinperfect restrictive law now in said that they unite in themselves all the force gives promise of complete success when faults, without any of the virtues, of their a better law is enacted.
progenitors. As men, they are generally inThose who condemn the conduct of the ferior to the pure races, and as members of miners in Wyoming, and yet declare for the society they are the worst class of citizens.” unlimited influx of Mongolians, are illogical, . Here in California we have no part in the in view of the necessities of the situation. opinion that American society is improved It is impossible that there can be a peaceful by a Chinese element. We know what this joint occupation of the United States by implies by long observation and experience. Americans and Chinese. It is best to look The Chinese are a caste by themselves, as this fact in the face. The history of the lat- distinct from the remainder of the commuter race elsewhere tends to prove it. The nity as Brahmins are from Pariahs. There Chinese are, where strong in numbers, aggres- is little danger of mixture of blood, for they sive and domineering. The sporadic cases remain, after years of residence, Chinese, exof violence against the Chinese in this coun- clusive in all their ways and thoughts, and try already occurring, tend to prove the their children born here continue like their incompatibility of the two races. Useless fathers. The admixture is of another nature. as émeutes have proved to be, to prevent the It is a state within a state. Their great influx of these people, the dislike which they number in this city makes them a colony excite is invincible, and leads to regrettable by themselves, occupying the heart of the violence. All the denunciations of eloquent city, street after street, block after block, pulpits, all the disfavor of law-abiding peo- given over exclusively to the sights and ple, will not prevent these scenes. The mat- sounds and smells of Peking. Such a colony ter touches the moral health of the people, would occupy New York city proportionally and these oft-occurring crimes are one of the from the Battery to Twelfth Street, and a worst incidents of an immigration which is dozen blocks solidly each side. Such an not desirable from any point of view. one would occupy all the streets for a quar
The theories of such men as Henry Ward ter of a mile around Beacon Hill in Boston. Beecher imply that a mixed population of The streets so occupied by the Chinese colAsiatics and Europeans would be better for ony in San Francisco were once filled with the United States than one of pure European handsome shops, residences, hotels, churches, origin. We must believe such to be their etc. Now, only the Mongolian is found view, for they persistently demand that the there, or, with some exceptions, debased present bars be let down, so that the coming of whites who ply shady vocations in their viChinese may be facilitated by existing steam cinity. The newspaper or periodical finds lines, and by every ocean tramp that covets few customers among the thousands who the profit made in a semi slave-trade. These crowd those treming streets. It is, in all its public teachers must be condemned as un- aspects and all its regimen, a little China.