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the observatory, by setting up the various in- perfect kind, and to transfer this to the . struments in the best manner, or so as to per- Regents of the University of Calisornia, to

mit these instruments to be thoroughly test- gether with the unexpended balance of the .ed by actually making observations of per- $700,000 originally given by Mr. Lick. The : manent value by their aid. In this way, the organization of the astronomical force is en

Trustees have obtained observations of the trusted to the Regents, who appoint the diTransit of Mercury (1881) and of the Tran- rector of the observatory and the various sit of Venus (1883), in addition to securing astronomers, and who pay the salaries of the competent professional judgments on the latter from the income of the observatory. work then completed, and valuable opinions Probably this income, when it is available, on that still remaining to be done.

will be sufficient for the purpose. In the The actual work of construction was be mean time, there are astronomical observagun in 1880, under the personal supervision tions which should be begun at once, but of Capt. R. S. Floyd and the superintendent which cannot be unless the salaries of the of construction, Mr. Fraser. Their unceas. competent assistants can be provided for. ing care, great practical knowledge, and It is of the first importance to find some ready comprehension of purely astronomical means of paying the salaries of one or two requirements have contributed to the excel- observers for the years 1886 and 1887, in lence of the observatory in no small degree. order that the magnificent equipment may

The summers of 1880 and 1881 were be at once put to its legitimate uses. No spent in obtaining a suitable platform for great sum is required, but a few thousand the observatory buildings, by blasting the dollars at this time would be of real service. rock away until a level surface was obtained In any event, it will not be very long thirty-two feet lower than the original sum before the observatory enters into activity. mit. A sufficient water supply was btained The only questions yet remaining are the faband utilized at once. In later years the rication of the large object glass and the prepearlier and temporary arrangements have arations for its use. The rough glass is now been replaced by permanent ones.

in the hands of the makers, Messrs. Alvan All the buildings of the observatory proper Clark & Sons. There is no reason to doubt ire now completed, except the dome for the their success in an undertaking for which arge equatorial. A suitable dwelling house they have served a magnificent apprenticehas been erected, others will be required. ship, in making the equatorials at Madison, All the principal instruments of the observ. Princeton, Washington, University of Virtory but one have been designed, ordered, ginia and at Pulkowa. onstructed, inspected, and are now suitably A dome of about seventy feet in diameter mounted so that observations could be at and an elaborate mounting for the telescope nce begun. Most of the minor apparatus must be ready for the objective when it i also in place.

leaves the hands of the makers. These conAn extensive astronomical library is re- structions must be most carefully studied, uired, which is in course of formation. In but it is certain that they can be successfully rder to do valuable and original work, it is made. In a comparatively short time the ecessary to know exactly what has been generous gift of Mr. Lick to his fellow-citione by others. Hardly any gift to the zens of California is sure to bear fruit. »servatory would be so useful as a perma The new observatory is magnificently built, ent library fund.

endowed, and placed ; and it has a field of The terms of Mr. Lick's deed of trustwork before it which is in many respects

not allow the Lick Trustees to begin unique. Everything will depend upon the once to pay salaries to astronomical ob- faithfulness of the astronomers who are Tvers.

Their duty is to build and equip privileged to utilize these perfect instruments astronomical observatory of the most in a perfect situation.

Edward S. Holden,

JOHN MCCULLOUGH.

Personal admirers, friendly critics, and ion; a pretty good actor in some parts : les distinguished members of the dramatic pro- he doesn't study-he will never rank its fession have paid their tribute to the dead Doleful Lugubrious as a star." Occasionall. tragedian, in praise of his manly qualities, however, it would be noted that the man his social nature, and his kindness of heart; with the unaffected manner and cheerfel but in noting the career of the popular actor, position had, in his early career, always the great reason for his success in his pro- “understudied” the other parts in the plass fession has been overlooked. He has been in which he appeared, and that the preca spoken of as a chairmaker, who, on some al- tion thus taken at such great pains, had ir most unremembered occasion, appeared in quently made his services available in the a small part in a comedy played at one of case of sudden illness of the person who the Philadelphia theaters ; as a suddenlypro. lines had been understudied. It is also moted utility man, entrusted with the delivery lated that on one occasion, when the inda of a few words in the tragedy of "Julius position of the great star necessitated the Cæsar.” But there must needs have been substitution of another play or the closir; many months of patient work, and of earnest the theater, and subsequent great loss to the study of authors and of the dramatic art, to manager, the warm-blooded young acto: o have enabled the hitherto uncultured chair- unteered to give a performance and acce maker to appear as a leading tragedian before any play that the company had recen. very large audiences in nearly every city in played in, or that the members were ma the United States, and even to win unstinted familiar with-and did appear in one of praise from the London critics, who are most difficult of the legitimate tragediet usually cynical when called upon to adnit evening, to the great delight of those to that an actor from America is the possessor composed the audience. It seems to be of a spark of dramatic talent. In the cour. never occurred to sone of the writers TV try where Edwin Forrest had been chilled by utterances go to make up public opinie cold reviews of his performances, McCul- that a man may be a diligent student. lough won recognition on his merits as an yet have time to mingle with the pud. actor, and made many warm friends among they themselves mingle; and the fact has the patrons of the drama. Dion Boucicault parently been overlooked that John VA: had predicted a great London success for lough was earnestly devoted to his profess his impersonation of Virginius, and the pre- with rare unselfishness, and that too diction was fully verified,

study probably caused the breaking or John McCullough did not pose as a stu- that resulted in his untimely death. dent, did not wear a preoccupied air when , Long before the time when Mr. Fas brought in contact with people off the stage, engaged him as leading man, the younge nor wrinkle his brow, as if in deep thought; had eagerly. read such works on the dhe laid no plans to be pointed out as as were accessible to him; and on beca of the most diligent students in the profes- couraged to make use of the extensive . sion”: and thus the man who did not act collected by the great tragedian, the ste when out of the theater, who could find spent every available minute of his tres time to exchange salutations with his friends, devouring the contents of the many valu iudulge in a chop at a rotisserie, or play a works which had been thus placed ? game of billiards at a hotel, was rated as a command. Mr. Forrest took frequest "genial gentleman and a delightful compan- sion to satisfy himself that the young

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was profiting by his study, and would fre "Hamlet.-How absolute the knave is! we must quently question him as to his understand- speak by the card, or equivocation will undo us. . . . ing of the plays he had read, or as to the How long hast thou been a grave-maker?

1st Clown.-Of all the days 'i the year, I came to't meaning of passages that are regarded as

that day that our last king Hamlet overcame Fortinobscure. In these questionings the young bras. man frequently responded with whole pages Hamlet. ---How long is that since ? of the text from meinory; but mere repeti- tell that. It was the very day that young Hamlet

Ist Clown. ---Cannot you tell that? every sool can tion of the words would not suffice the tutor ;

was born; he that was mad, and sent into England. an answer was required that would show a

Hamlet.-Ay, marry, why was he sent into Eng. knowledge of the meaning of the author. It land ? was before the time when the phrase was in Ist Clown.-Why, because he was mad: he shall vented that permits the popular actor to

recover his wits there, or, if he do not, it's no great

matter there. claim that he has "created the character”

Hamlet, –Why? in the play which has for the time struck the 1st Clown.—'T will not be seen in him; there the fancy of the public. The tutor held that men are as mad as he. the province of the actor was not only to

Hamlet. - How came he niadt? conscientiously deliver the language of the

1st Clown.-Very strangely, they say.

Hamlet.- How strangely? playwright, but to faithfully portray the char

1st Clown.- 'Faith, e'en with losing his wits. acter created by the author, and this could

Hamlet. -Upon what ground? only be accomplished by diligent study of 1st Clown. - Why, here, in Denmark. I have been the whole play. As the student turned over

sexton here, man and boy, thirty years. the leaves of a volume of Shakespeare, and

isi Clown.

Here's a skull now ; this skull nis 'eye rested on the tragedy of “ Hamlet,” has lain in the earth three and twenty years. ne inquired why that tragedy was no longer Hamlet. --Whose was it? ncluded in the list of plays to be presented first Clown.--. *This same skull, sir, was Yorn the engagements made by the great trage

ick's skull, the King's jester.

Hamlet.-- This? lian. - This opportunity to test the young

ist Clown.-E'en that. nan's memory and understanding could not Hamilči. -Let me see. Alas, poor Yorick!-I e overlooked :

knew him, Horatio: a fellow of infinite jest, of most “ Don't you know that the Prince of Den- excellent fancy: he hath borne me on his back a nark, according to popular' idea, should be thousand times.? layed by an actor of juvenile appearance After the acceptance of the challenge, stripling not yet of sufficient age to succeed Horatio expresses his fear that Hamlet will

the throne left vacant by the death of his lose the wager with Laertes, and Hamlet reather? And yet the author does not fur- plies: 'I do not think so: since he went inish the basis for the popular idea. How to France I have been in constant practice ; oes Shakespeare describe Hamlet physi- I shall win at the odds ! ally?"

“And during the fencing bout, in the presThe reply was instant : As a man of 'ence of the court, the Queen completes the rirty years of age, an athlete, and of full description, while expressing her fears at the ibit.”

i result : Quote the lines that warrant that descrip King.-Our son shall win. on.”

Quicen.

Ile's fat and scant of breath. * They are to be found in the fifth act,

Here, Hamlet, take my napkin, rub thy the scene with the grave-digger ; in the

The Queen carouses to thy fortune, Hamceptance of the challenge delivered by

let. ung Osric; and in the fencing scene. I II read the colloquy between Hamlet and

Come, let me wipe thy face.'”; e First Clown, as he is called in the Many years after his conversations with lume:

Mr. Forrest, McCullough expressed his grat

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and the Santa Cruz mountains to the west, eleven were cioudy or foggy. This estimate a bit of the Pacific and the Bay of Monterey of high class nights does not rest simply on to the southwest, the Sierra Nevada, with the observer's judgment. He has left an excountless ranges to the southeast, the San tensive series of actual measures of difficult Joaquin valley, with the Sierras beyond, double stars, and a catalogue of forty-two to the east, while to the north lie many new doubles discovered by him during this lower ranges of hills, and on the horizon, short period. It is to be noted that in many Lassen's Butte, one hundred and seventy-five cases Mr. Burnham's new double stars bear miles away. The Bay of San Francisco lies peculiar witness to the excellent conditions flat before you like a child's dissecting map, of vision. He was examining with his sixand beyond it is Mount Tamalpais, at the inch telescope the stars which had been deentrance to the Golden Gate. Monte Diablo scribed as double by the elder Struve, with lies to the northeast, forty-one miles distant. the nine-inch telescope of Dorpat. Strure's Mount St. Helena is not visible. Mount telescope collected iwo and one-fourth times Hamilton dominates all its neighbors, and more light than the other, and was one and a holds a singularly isolated and advantageous half times more efficient in pure separating place.

power.

Yet stars which Struve had cata. The land for the site (1350 acres) was logued as double, were found by Mr. Burnham granted by Congress on June 7, 1876, and to be tri ple. Other new stars of great diffia purchase of 191 acres was subsequently culty were found. made by the Trustees, to enable them to Mr. Burnham says: “Remembering that control the access of the reservation. these stars were discovered with what, in

Mr. Lick died on October 1, 1876. At these days of great refractors, would be conhis death a number of legal questions arose sidered as a very inferior instrument in point which required some years to settle. It was of size, we may form some conception of not until 1879 that the financial affairs of the what might be done with an instrument of trust were in such a condition that active the power of that at the Naval Observatory preparations for the observatory could be be. (twenty-six inch aperture), or with the Pulgun.

kowa glass (of thirty inch aperture)." In the summer of this year, Mr. Burnham, The large telescope of the Lick Observaa most distinguished observer of double stars, tory is to have an aperture of thirty-six inwas asked by the Trustees to transport his ches, and a length of sixty feet. own very perfect telescope to the summit of Another most important point is not speMount Hamilton, and there to actually make cially noted by Mr. Burnham. Not only are an extended series of observations similar to many nights of the highest excellence, but a those he was constantly making at Chicago, large proportion of the remaining ones are his home, or at the observatories of Dart- very suitable for work. There are many asmouth College and of Washington, where he tronomical researches where it is of great imwas a frequent visitor. In this way a very portance that a series of observations should satisfactory judgment of the fitness of Mount be continuous; and for all such researches Hamilton foran observatory site could behad. Mount Hamilton is an almost unrivalled

Mr. Burnham spent the months of August, site. This stay of Mr. Burnham's was a conSeptember and October on the summit, in a vincing proof that the site for the future obsmall canvas-covered observatory, which was servatory had been well chosen. perched on the narrow saddle of the moun The Trustees have followed a wise policy tain peak.

in inviting various astronomers to spend His report to the Trustees gives a sober short periods at Mount Hamilton, and to adbut an enthusiastic account of the prevailing vise them upon the work of construction and conditions. Of sixty nights, no less than equipment. These invitations have been so forty-two were of the very highest class, seven timed as to enable the visiting astronomers were quite suitable for observations, while to render material aid in the construction of

the observatory, by setting up the various in- perfect kind, and to transfer this to the struments in the best manner, or so as to per- Regents of the University of California, tomit these instruments to be thoroughly test- gether with the unexpended balance of the ed by actually making observations of per- $700,000 originally given by Mr. Lick. The manent value by their aid. In this way, the organization of the astronomical force is enTrustees have obtained observations of the trusted to the Regents, who appoint the diTransit of Mercury (1881) and of the Tran- rector of the observatory and the various sit of Venus (1883), in addition to securing astronomers, and who pay the salaries of the competent professional judgments on the latter from the income of the observatory. work then completed, and valuable opinions Probably this income, when it is available, on that still remaining to be done.

will be sufficient for the purpose. In the The actual work of construction was be mean time, there are astronomical observagun in 1880, under the personal supervision tions which should be begun at once, but of Capt. R. S. Floyd and the superintendent which cannot be unless the salaries of the of construction, Mr. Fraser. Their unceas- competent assistants can be provided for. ing care, great practical knowledge, and It is of the first importance to find some ready comprehension of purely astronomical means of paying the salaries of one or two requirements have contributed to the excel- observers for the years 1886 and 1887, in lence of the observatory in no small degree. order that the magnificent equipment may

The summers of 1880 and 1881 were be at once put to its legitimate uses. No spent in obtaining a suitable platform for great sum is required, but a few thousand the observatory buildings, by blasting the dollars at this time would be of real service. rock away until a level surface was obtained In any event, it will not be very long thirty-two feet lower than the original sum before the observatory enters into activity. mit. A sufficient water supply was obtained The only questions yet remaining are the faband utilized at once. In later years the rication of the large object-glass and the prepearlier and temporary arrangements have arations for its use. The rough glass is now been replaced by permanent ones.

in the hands of the makers, Messrs. Alvan All the buildings of the observatory proper Clark & Sons. There is no reason to doubt are now completed, except the dome for the their success in an undertaking for which large equatorial. A suitable dwelling house they have served a magnificent apprenticehas been erected, others will be required. ship, in making the equatorials at Madison, All the principal instruments of the observ. Princeton, Washington, University of Viratory but one have been designed, ordered, ginia and at Pulkowa. constructed, inspected, and are now suitably A dome of about seventy feet in diameter mounted so that observations could be at and an elaborate mounting for the telescope once begun. Most of the minor apparatus must be ready for the objective when it is also in place.

leaves the hands of the makers. These conAn extensive astronomical library is re- structions must be most carefully studied, quired, which is in course of formation. In but it is certain that they can be successfully order to do valuable and original work, it is made. In a comparatively short time the necessary to know exactly what has been generous gift of Mr. Lick to his fellow-citidone by others. Hardly any gift to the zens of California is sure to bear fruit. observatory would be so useful as a perma The new observatory is magnificently built, nent library fund.

endowed, and placed ; and it has a field of The terms of Mr. Lick's deed of trustwork before it which is in many respects do not allow the Lick Trustees to begin unique. Everything will depend upon the at once to pay salaries to astronomical ob- faithfulness of the astronomers who are

Their duty is to build and equip privileged to utilize these perfect instruments an astronomical observatory of the most in a perfect situation.

Edward S. Holden.

servers.

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