Slike strani

lish between every possible human action anted, we stand in need of exact discriminaand the antecedent or environing chain of tion. With such discrimination, we shall events in nature out of which the web of its find that, decided as the inference to panthemotives must be woven; and from the ism from the methods and principles just pitch and proclivity that must be trans. discussed seems to be, it is, after all, illegitimitted, according to the principle of evolu- mate. tion, by the heredity inseparable from the Our first caution here must be, to rememprocess of descent.

For immortality, the ber that it is not science in its entire comdiscredit comes, by way of the principle of pass that is concerned in the question we are evolution, through its indication, under the discussing. It is only "modern science," restrictions of the empirical method, of the popularly so called—that is, science taken to transitoriness of all survivals, and through mean only the science of nature ; and not its necessary failure to supply any evidence only so, but further restricted to signify only whatever of even a possible survival beyond what may fitly enough be described as the the sensible world, with which empirical ev- natural science of nature; that is, so much olution has alone to do; while, by way of of the possible knowledge of nature as can the principle of the conservation and dissi- be reached through the channels of the senspation of energy, the discredit comes from es; so much, in short, as will yield itself to the doom that manifestly seems to await all a method strictly observational and empiri. forms of actual energy, taken in connection cal. with the generai discredit of everything un Hence, the real question is, whether emaitested by the senses, which the persistent pirical science, confined to nature as its culture of empiricism begets.

proper object, can legitimately assert the In short, while the empirical method ig- theory of pantheism. And with regard now, nores, and must ignore, any supersensible first, to the argument drawn with such apparprinciple of existence whatever, thus tending ent force from the mere method of natural to the identification of the Absolute with the science, it should be plain to a more Sum of Things, evolution and the principle of scrutinizing reflection, that shifting from conservation have familiarized the modern the legitimate disregard of a supersensible mind with the continuity, the unity, and the principle, which is the right of the empirical uniformity of nature in an overwhelming de- method, to the deliberate assumption that gree. In the absence of the conviction, upon there is no such principle, because there is independent grounds, that the Principle of and can be no sensible evidence of it, is existence is personal and rational, the sci an abuse of the method in question-an ences of nature can hardly fail, even upon a unwarrantable extension of its province to somewhat considerate and scrutinizing view, decisions lying by its own terms beyond to convey the impressiön that the Source of its ken. This shifting is made upon the things is a vast and shadowy Whole, which assumption that there can be no science sweeps onward to an unknown destination, founded on any other than empirical evi“regardless," as one of the leaders of mod- dence. That there is, and can be, no sciern science has said, “of consequences,” and ence deserving the name, except that which unconcerned as to the fate of man's world follows the empirical method of mere natuof effort and hope, apparently so circum- ral science, is a claim which men of science scribed and insignificant in comparison. are prone to make, but which the profound

est thinkers the world has known--such minds MODERN SCIENCE IS, STRICTLY, Non

as Plato, or Aristotle, or Hegel-have cerPANTHEISTIC.

tainly pronounced a claim unfounded, and,

indeed, a sheer assumption, contradicted by But now that we come to the closer ques- evidence the clearest, if oftentimes abstruse. tion, whether this impression is really war. When, instead of blindly following experi

Vol. VI.-42.

ence, we raise the question of the real nature be silent on this question of pantheism ; as and the sources of experience itself, and push indeed it is, and from the nature of the case it in earnest, it then appears that the very must be, upon all theories of the supersensipossibility of the experience that seems so ble whatever—whether theistic, deistic, or rigorously to exclude supersensible princi- atheistic. Natural science has no proper ples, and particularly the rational personality concern with them. Science may well enough of the First Principle, is itself dependent for be said to be non-pantheistic, but so also is it its existence on such Principle and principles; non-theistic, non-deistic, non-atheistic. Its that, in fact, these enter intellectually into position, however, is not for that reason anits very constitution. But, in any case, this ti-pantheistic, any more than it is anti-theistic, question of the nature of experience, of the or anti-deistic, or anti-atheistic. It is rather limits of possible knowledge, and whether agnostic, in the sense, that is, of declining to these last are identical with the former, is affect knowledge in the premises, because one in the taking up of which we abandon these are beyond its method and province. the field of nature, and enter the very differ- In short, its agnosticism is simply its neutralent field of the theory of cognition. In this, ity; and does not in the least imply that agthe pursuer of natural science, as such, has nosticism is the final view of things. The not a word to say. Here his method is alto investigation of the final view, the search gether insufficient and unavailing; if the for the First Principle, science leaves to problem can be solved at all, it can only be methods far other than her own of docile by methods that transcend the bounds of sense-experience-methods that philosophy merely empirical evidence.

is now prepared to vindicate as higher and So, again, in the inferences to pantheism far more trustworthy. Yet, when once the from the conservation of energy and the prin- supersensible Principle is reached, in some ciple of evolution. Strong as the evidence other way—the way of philosophy, as disseems, it arises in both cases from violating tinguished from that of natural sciencethe strict principles of the natural scientific science will then furnish the most abundant method. All inferences to a whole of poten- confirmations, the strongest corroborations ; tial energy, or to a whole determinant of the the more abundant and the stronger, in prosurvivals in a struggle for existence, are really portion as the First Principle presented by inferences--passings beyond the region of the philosophy ascends, evolution-wise, from experimental and sensible facts into the em- materialism, through pantheism, to rational pirically unknown, empirically unattested, theism. For science accords most perfectly empirically unwarranted region of super- with the latter, although she is, in herself, sensible principles. The exact scientific wholly unable to attain the vision of it. But truth about all such inferences, and the it must be a theism that subsumes into its supposed realities which they establish, is, conceptions of God and man all the irrefutthat they are unwarranted by natural science; able insights of materialism, of deism, and, and that this lack of warrant is only the ex- eminentiy, of pantheism; of which, as I will pression by natural science of its incompe- hope this paper has shown, there are those tency to enter upon such questions. of the greatest pertinence and reality, if also Natural science may therefore be said to

of the most undeniable insufficiency.

G. H. Hori'ison.


The important events in our Pacific community, ment, he will become so to an extent that it is alsuch as call for mention in a periodical of The most impossible to find paralleled in modern times. OVERLAND's character, have of late taken a remark. It is perhaps hardly realized by any one at present ably collegiate turn. Apart from purely industrial how far, a hundred or a thousand years from now, events, such as the convention of fruit-shippers, the this University foundation will overshadow the railnotable occurrences of the past half-dozen weeks have road achievement, great though that was; but if any been: the inauguration of President Sprague over the one wishes to thus realize how far the conferring of innew Mills College; the appointment of Professor tellectual benefit upon a community outlives and outHolden to the presidency of the State University; the weighs the performance of great industrial works for formal establishment of the great Stanford founda- it, let him try to tell the name of the builder of any tion ; and the renewal of the anti-Chinese agitation one of the great Roman roads-works as marvelous on this coast. Of the first two of these events we for their time, and as valuable to the state, as the have already spoken, as they occurred : the others first great transcontinental railroad is to ours; and have fallen within the past month.

then let him think of the undying fame of Maecenas,

the patron of art and literature and learning. But The Stanford foundation is now so far advanced greater even than the achievement of lasting honor as to be a text for almost endless comment. The among one's fellow-men of later generations, is it to terms of the grant; the probable effect of this or become a living power among them forever. If some that provision; the new and highly experimental fea. inconceivable power should smite the name of Stan, tures, of which there are several; the way to secure ford absolutely ont of men's memories, he would still the highest possible degree of coöperation between the possess that greater thing than fame—undying power, new group of schools and those already existing in immortality of beneficence on earth. the State : these are points of the highest significance,

“Oh, may I join the choir invisible which should by no means be passed by with bare Of those immortal dead who live again mention. We are reluctantly compelled to postpone In lives made better by their life !" any discussion of them till a later issue of The Over

was the aspiration of one who believed in this earth. LAND; but we do it with the less reluctance, because ly immortality only, and found it great and satisfying the first expression in view of the fact of Mr. Stan- enough to make up for the loss of personal immortalford's magnificent gift must so certainly be only of ity. To one who believes in the personal future life, it gratitude and admiration, that a month may without gives two immortalities to “live again in lives made impropriety intervene before any critical consideration better by his life.” This is the aspiration of many ; of details. The splendid gift already made, with the the achievement of many to a greater or less deassurance, which seems to be authoritative, that this

gree ; but it rarely happens to one man and woman is only the beginning; the intention which is under

to have both the power and the will to thus live stood to be settled in the minds of Mr. and Mrs. Stan

after death on a great scale, working and shaping ford, to devote the remainder of their lives to the ser- beneficently in the lives of many-not of tens nor of vice of the University; the magnificence and magnani- hundreds, but of thousands and tens of thousands, mity of all this do, indeed, incline those most in sym

as the generations follow on. Herein is the wisdom pathy to say least--in the spirit of Emerson's lines :

of money spent in education rather than in charity “And loved so well a high behavior

--that each recipient of influence becomes in his In man or maid, that thou from speech refrained, turn a center to transmit the same in every direction, Nobility more nobly to repay."

so that it multiplies forever in geometric ratio ; while To those whose hearts are most sincerely in the work charity stops and perishes with the immediate recipiof education, or of otherwise helping humanity to a And this power to mould unborn generations higher stand, those who feel Mr. and Mrs. Stanford's for good, to keep one's hands mightily on human afgreat gist almost as if they had received a rich per

fairs after the flesh has been dust for years, seems sonal endowment, who watch its development, and not only more than mortal, but more than man-it is dwell with almost breathless interest on the probable like the power of a god, to kill and make alive; and effect of each detail: to these, the instinctive thought it is both sound theology and sound philosophy to of the action is not as “ renunciation,” but as achieve say that in beneficent action a man does, in fact, to ment. It is hard to express adequately what a man some extent, rise into participation in a divine nature becomes by such an act. Mr. Stanford was al and divine activity, becoming "coworker with God ready, take it all in all, the foremost citizen of the in the shaping of the world to a good outcome. It State ; but by the completion of the present endow. does not often, in the history of mankind, happen to


any one to have both the power and the will to do so Germany, abolitionist-mobbing in the New England much of this joint work as in the present instance. of not so many decades ago, we submit that injustice

would be done to our people to judge them less law. There is another peculiar felicity, which now falls abiding than these. In not one of the cases we have to the remarkable man who thus becomes a modern just mentioned has there been so little participation Mæcenas. Had Senator Stanford's training been in the wrong, so considerable a protest against it, by specifically scholarly, it is highly probable that the the better class; notwithstanding that in not one of fascinations of one or another branch of scholarly re them has there been so general and deeply rooted a search would have seized upon his active mind, and conviction that the lawlessness was provoked by real that his achievements in science or history or econom. and grave evil. ic studies might have been great. There is no possible proof that he might not have become one of the

We publish this month a paper called out by the great leaders of science or other scholarship. The

Hon. A. A. Sargent's in our last number. It reprepossibility of this life (and those who choose it unques

sents the views of a small minority of our people, and tionably find it more satisfying, more prolific in health

to suppress these, or conceal the fact that they exist, ful enjoyment, than others find their respective call. would be the sheerest dishonesty. If anti-Chinese ings), a man absolutely renounces in entering the race

sentiment on this coast needs the aid of any sort of for wealth and industrial achievement. There is no

terrorism, it puts itself into a bad light. We reiter. reconciliation: neither learning nor millions can be

ate what we have said before, that this subject is the had by divided effort. What a rare and remarkable better for free discussion, that our press has not peroutcome, then, of a man's lise, that after having ob

mitted this to the extent that it should, and that, tained great success in industrial achievement, in without endorsing the opinions of contributors, the money-getting, in politics, it should now become pos- OVERLAND will maintain an open forum on this, as sible to him to be, by proxy, man of science or of

on other questions, insisting only upon temperance letters; for his endowment will inevitably create

and courtesy of expression, and sufficient literary more than one such man, who would never have been

merit. As it chances, for instance, neither Mr. Sarsuch without it.

gent's nor “ J's "views exactly meet the OVERLAND'S

own, which were sufficiently indicated a month or Of the recent renewal of anti-Chinese demonstra

two since, in commenting upon the Wyoming mattions in Washington Territory and this State, there is ter, and will be expressed again, from time to time,

hereafter. but one thing to be said: and that is that the pre

Forget Me Not. tence of “peaceable expulsion” is a shame to the moral sense of whoever uses the phrase.

(From the French of Alfred de lusset.)

Expulsion under threat of violence is to the full as illegal, and

Forget me not, what time the timid Dawn only a shade less brutal, than the Wyoming method opes the enchanted palace of the Sun ; of sheer massacre. That even a touch of this wrong

Forget me not, when Vight her starry lawn

Throws o'er her pensive head when day is done; has fallen on our own State is deeply to be regretted.

When pleasure's voice is heard, and all thy senses thrill, Nor is there, to our judgment, any truth in the as

Or Eve with dewy dreams descends the heavenly hill, sertion that the better class of citizens have any

Hark, from the forest's deep where been concerned in this sort of thing.

Murmurs a voice like sleep: speaker-himself a workman--at Seattle, in the citi.

Forget me not. zens' mass-meeting called to protest against the law

Forget me not, when Fate, despite our tears, less proceedings, said that the cry at Tacoma had prac. Hath thrust our lives forevermore apart, tically been, “ The Americans must go "; that these When grief, and exile, and the cruel years were no American acts. And when in our own State Have bruised and crushed this over-wearied heart; we see an Englishman better protected in his unques Think of my mournful love, think of our last farewell, tionable right to employ a Chinese servant than our Nor time nor space is aught while lasts love's wizard own people, it certainly looks as if the American

spell. were being crowded very hard into a corner. But

While still my heart shall beat while we refuse to believe that worthy citizens have

This word 'twill e'er repeat: been concerned in this sort of illegal outrage, it is

Forget me not certain that a very great number of such among Forget me not, when in the chilly clay us regard the presence of Chinese here with so ex

My broken heart forever shall repose; treme an antipathy, that they cannot feel any seri. Forget me not, when at the breath of May ous reprobation towards the lawless expression of A lonely flower shall o'er niy tomb unclose.

Me thou shalt see no more, but my immortal soul, the same antipathy by men of another sort.

For aye thy sister sprite, will seek thee as its goal. not of these ; yet, remembering how large a number

List, through the night profound, of worthy citizens have been guilty of at least com

A plaintive, moaning sound : plaisance toward murdering of Indians on the fron

Forget me not. tier, family vendettas in the South, Jew-baiting in

Albert S. Cook,


We are


Holiday and Children's Books.

lancs, instead of among the crowds of a later genThe gift-season has so far produced no books eration.” Dr. Holmes explains the change of a equal in sumptuousness to one or two of last year's; line from the “So forlorn” of earlier editions to the but it is still comparatively early. The most elabor

"Sad and wan" of later ones. The words are cerate production that we have yet seen is a heavy vol. tainly less expressive, and although “wan--gone "is ume, large enough to be taken at first sight for a a true rhyme according to the dictionaries, we behandsome edition of Holmes's complete works, which lieve that most educated speakers outside of Boston proves to be devoted to "The Last Leaf"land illustra do not make it so, but, on the contrary, a worse tions thereof. With heavy card-board pages, printed rhyme than "lorn--gone.” The pictures in this on one side only, and unlimited decoration, the little book are said to contain many correct and excellent poem expands to incredible proportions. Leaving studies of the old graveyards, streets, and houses of out of account frontispiece, decorated title page, etc.,

Boston. the contents begin with a fac-simile of the poem in

A less ambitious, but still large and handsome, Dr. Holmes's own hand--not from the original copy,

volume is made by illustrating a dozen of Whittier's which has doubt!ess been long out of existence, but descriptive poems, under the title of “Poems of from a re-copy made expressly for this took. This fac. Nature." A few ballads, which have a background simile, enclosed in decorative margins, occupies three of scenery adapted to landscape illustration, are inpages ; twenty full page illustrations follow, each cluded among the descriptive poems. The fifteen faced by a page containing a highly decorated pres illustrations by Elbridge Kingsley are of entation of the line or word illustrated; three more

such subjects as a storm at sea, moonlight on a lake, pages enclose within like margins a little "history of

wide views over hills and valleys, etc. They are all the poem,” from Dr Holmes--that is to say, a little from nature, and a number of them are well-known amiable reminiscence about it. The illustrations, by New England views. They are curiously ineffective George Wharton Edwards and F. Hopkinson Smith, in perspective, giving no impression of distance what. are both beautiful and unique, making this artisti ever, and they are confused in the outlining of obcally an unusual gift-book. Their appropriateness is jects : but they are strong in effects of light and sometimes more to be questioned than their purely shadow, and very expressive of motion-the branches artistic merit, and the connection between text and of trees in a wind, the driving of rain, the rolling of picture occasionally of the shadowiest. Dr. Holmes's clouds, the waves of the sea. account of the poem mentions that it was suggested

Lieutenant Schwatka's book, Nimrod in the North, by the sight of a figure well known to Bostonians,”

was out before the holiday season had come very in the early thirties, “that of Major Thomas Mel near, and is illustrated, though profusely, with plain ville, 'the last of the cocked hats,' as he was

wood engravings, of medium quality. But its matsometimes called .... He was often pointed at as

ter, and especially its cover (whereon, upon a pale one of the In ins' of the famous Boston Tea green ground, the great letters of the title drip with Party' of 1774.” It seems that some readers have, silver gilt icicles, and heads of seal and musk-ox and rather unaccountably, been puzzled by the lines

other arctic decoration occupy all available space) " The last leaf upon the tree

decide us to class it among holiday books. As its In the Spring,"

title indicates, it is concerned with the sportsman's and Dr. Holmes feels obliged to explain that “ His side of Arctic travel—the hunting of the polar bear, aspect among the crowds of the later generation re

the seal and sea-horse, the reindeer, the musk-ox, minded me of a withered leaf which had held its

the fox, the wolverine, and the various sea-fowl; stem through the storms of autumn and winter, and fishing, too, is made to come under the title. It is finds itself still clinging to its bough, while the new

not a mere account of hunting experiences, but an growths of spring are bursting their buds and spread.

account of the Arctic animals and their habits, and ing their foliage all around it." The artists have

the general subject of hunting them, merely illusmade no especial effort to bring out this contrast,

trated by the Lieutenant's own exploits. There is as and, perhaps finding artistic difficulties in introduc

much of the naturalist as of the sportsman in it. Of ing nineteenth century people to their pages at all,

2 Poems of Nature, By John Greenleaf Whittier have kept the old Major pacing lonely streets and

Illustrated from Nature, by Elbridge Kingsley Bos

ton: Houghton, Miffin & Co. 1886. 1 The Last Leaf. Poem. Oliver Wendell Holmes. 3 Nimrod in the North. Hunting and Fishing AdMustrated by George Wharton Edwards and F. Hop ventures in the Arctic Regions. By Lieutenant Fredkinson Smith. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin & Co. erick Schwatka. New York: Cassell & Co. 1885. 1626. For sale in San Francisco by Chilion Beach. For sale in San Francisco by A. L. Bancroft & Co.

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