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and received with reproach and con- institutions, which served to balance tempt. These dilapidations and ruins the power of the crown, and to disof the ancient candour and discipline, tinguish between the government of were not taken enough at heart, and Louis XV. and an absolute despotism, repaired with that early care and se- were irretrievably demolished. The verity that they might have been, for ephemeral institutions of the revoluthey were not incorrigible; but by tion were still farther from affording the remissness of applying remedics a rallying point, and with the ruins to some, and the unwariness in giving of ten successive constitutions lying a kind of countenance to others, too around them, the political architects much of that poison insinuated itself could select little that might be useful into minds not well fortified against as materials in a new structure. The such inflictions, so that much of the charter, therefore, laboured under all malignity was transplanted, instead of the disadvantages of an experimental being extinguished, to the corruption measure, the subject of criticism to all of many wholesome bodies, which cor- factions, and of reverence to none. ruption spread the disease more power- The high pretensions to religion fully and more mischievously." among the English puritans, though

But although the state of England in many instances hypocritical, served so nearly resembled that of France, at to keep one part of the kingdom the same critical period of history, she strangers to gross and open profligacy, was more fortunate in several points, and if they did not restrain the egowhich enabled her to resist the conta- tism, pride, deceit, and avarice of the gion, to which France so nearly fell a fathers, at least insured to the children victim.

the benefits of a suber, severe, and reli. The death of Cromwell, and the ex- gious education, and prevented the istence of Bonaparte, we have already manners of the nation from becomnoticed as a marked point of distinc. ing utterly and openly depraved by tion.

license and sensuality. But above all, The Cavaliers also, thoughruined and Louis XVIII. wanted-what he would impoverished, remained most of them have better known how to prize than in possession of their paternal estates, Charles,—the services of such a minisand the natural influence was attached ter as the disinterested and the sagato them, which had been transferred cious Clarendon, wise to foresee, firm to from the French royalists, and was meet, and skilful to repress or elude vested in others, whom the very appre- the evils growing out of the overhension of the claims of the emigrants strained expectations of some, the rendered hostile to the royal family. fears and jealousies of others, the dis

The English also might at the Re- content of a third class, and the genestoration of Charles rally around the ral deterioration of national character, ancient forms of their constitution, which he saw with the eye of an able which had been violated indeed, but statesman, and recorded with the pen not obliterated, and still commanded of a faithful historian. The want of the reverence due to the social system such a sage and disinterested minister of their fathers. But in France there was, in all human probability, the prin- . was no such resource. Even the most cipal cause that the fortunes of France staunchi royalist must have despaired to and of the House of Bourbon were a reinstate the ancient monarchy, since second time committed to the bloody the parliaments, the privileges of the arbitrement of the sword. clergy and nobles, and all other Gothic

9

CHAP. VII.

Report on the State of France.-The Finance. The War Establishment. The

Navy.-Moral State of the Country.-Debate on the Liberty of the Press.Faure's Motion for a previous Censorship-Opposed by Marshal Macdonald. -Adopted in a Modified State.-Reflections on these Restrictions.-Petition of Ferru, and other Booksellers, to the Chamber of Deputies.-Characters of some of the Censors.-- Conduct of Incendiary Authors and Publishers to evade the Law.- Affairs of the Maire of Darnae, and the ancient Seigneur Marshal Macdonald's Plan for granting Indemnities to the Emigrants, and paying the Pensions of the veteran Soldiers. THOUGH the political atmosphere of and children have been hurried off to France appeared to present symptoms die 400 leagues from their fathers. of future tempestuous change, the first No hope of return soothed this frightmonths of the restored monarch's ful separation; habit had caused it to reign were calm and undisturbed, be regarded as eternal; and the peaThere appeared even signs of reviving sants of Britany, after conducting their prosperity, which the royal ministers sons to the place of separation, have endeavoured to enhance by contrast. been seen to return to their churches ing them with the state of public af- to put up for them by anticipation the fairs at the restoration of Louis the prayers for the dead !" Desired.

The details corresponding to this A report on the state of the nation, fearful exordium, the multiplication of by the minister of the interior, painted levies, and the consumption of life in the strongest colours the miseries had been such, that, including the of Buonaparte's subjects, and may be levy en masse of 1814, to the number long consulted as an antidote to the of" 143,000 men, which had not been thirst of conquest. “ War," said the fully executed, the sum total of conAbbé de Montesquieu, “was doubtless scription amounted, in the course of the principal cause of the ills of France. about two years or little more, to no History presented not any example of less than one million three hundred a great nation incessantly precipitated thousand souls. It is not too much, against its will into enterprises con- therefore, to suppose, that one milstantly increasing in bazard and dis- lion, the flower of the youth and mantress. The world saw with astonish- hood of France, perished by fatigue, ment, mingled with terror, a civilized disease, and the edge of the sword, people compelled to exchange its hap- within that brief space. piness and repose for the wandering Notwithstanding this drain of popu. life of barbarous hordes. The ties of lation, the state of agriculture, which families were broken; fathers have had received a strong impulse by the grown old far from their children; şubdivision of great landed estates,

1

to

In 1811
In 1812
In 1813

to

150 millions.
140 millions.

to

1

continued to flourish. The mines all the resources which could be exwere prosperous, even manufactures torted from the other nations of Euand commerce were beginning to re- rope, had, after the commencement vive, although hampered by prohibit of his misfortunes, and while he was ing laws concerning export and im- compelled to seek all the necessary port, and nearly ruined by what Buo. funds from the bosom of France hernaparte called his continental system. self, been plunged into a complete

The various funds appropriated to chaos. The report states, “On the the service of the ministry of the inte · Ist of May last, (1814), the land forces rior amounted,

of France amounted to more than five 143 millions, hundred and twenty thousand men, in

cluding gend-armerie, veterans, inva

lids, and cannoniers, guarding the But to this expenditure the public coasts. Besides this force, there are treasury only contributed about 60 122,597 military of all ranks enjoying millions yearly at the utmost; the rest half-pay. One hundred and sixty thouwas made up by taxes of various kinds sand prisoners are returning to us from in the departments, and the funds Prussia, Austria, England, and Russia. raised were often withdrawn from the The staff of the army, including engipurposes of the interior administra- neers, inspectors, commissaries, &c. tion, and applied to the more pressing amounts to 1874 individuals. demands of military operations. In order to supply the deficiences thus The pay, &c. of men in active service for

1814, amounts to

209,000,000 occasioned, many expenses which Half-pay, &c. to

$4,000,000 should have been borne by the general funds of the state, as salaries of

Total, 236,000,000 police administrators, expense of the The war of 1812 and 1813 destroybarracks, &c. were thrown upon

the

ed, in artillery and ammunition, a carevenues of the communes, who, to pital of 250 millions; and the fortified defray these exorbitant charges, were places in the countries ceded by compelled to increase the poll-tax, France, had, since 1804, cost her 115 called communal octrois, until it was millions. The budget of the war mi. averaged at about seven livres (five nistry, properly so called, had been shillings and ten-pence) a-head upon fixed under all heads, for 1814, at 360 each inhabitant, and in some cities millions. But in consequence of a di, even amounted to seventeen livres, (or vision which had existed some years, fourteen shillings and two-pence). there was, besides the department of The state of the poor and of the hos. the ministry at war, that of the war pitals, thus plundered of all the tangi- administ

administration. The expences of this ble funds destined to support them, last were in 1812, 238,000,000 francs ; was represented as most deplorable; in 1813, 374,000,000; and in 1814 and the state of the roads and bridges, they will be 380,000,000; which last as neglected by the late government, sum will, for 1814, occasion a total and destroyed in the course of the ide expense, in these two branches, of vasion.

740 millions. The expenses of the war establish

The arrear

also of these two ment being the very root of the evil, branches is enormous: That of the complicated as they were during Buo- ministry at war amounts, according naparte's prosperity, and while he had to present statements, to 104,000,000;

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and that of the war administration to the lie to these measures, by forming 157,000,000, making a total arrear of into marching regiments and uniting 261 millions.

with the army the crews with whom “ But these statements are not yet the intended vessels were to have been complete : The arrears of the armies manned. And thus, while apparently during the years 1811, 12, 13, and 14, intent upon forming with the one hand are still unknown. Neither do they the material part of a naval power, include a sum of 100 millions, ordon- Buonaparte annihilated with the other nanced by the two minstries, which the very profession of the sailors, they no longer reckon their debt, but through whose means alone it could which the treasury has not been able be rendered efficient and formidable. to pay.

We must add, also, to the In the financial department, a sinexpenses occasioned by the war, the gular instance of Buonaparte's deceprequisitions of which we have already tive policy was exposed to the nation. spoken, the expense of the guards of Annual expositions of national receipt honour, and of the offers of mounted and expenditure had been periodically and equipped horsemen. The expense published since he assumed the reins of the two latter heads, for the depart- of government, which were, to outments of Old France, may be estima- ward appearance, unchallengeably acted at 15,611,000 francs."

curate; and, as they seemed to balance The state of the marine department each other, afforded the fair

prospect exhibited in the strongest colours the that, the revenues of the state being active and energetic, yet vain-glori. realized, the expenses could not fali ous and miscalculating, disposition of into arrear. But in reality, a number Buonaparte. From the date of the of extraordinary expenses were withprojected invasion of England down. held from the view of the public, while, wards, the most gigantic attempts had on the other hand, the produce of the been made to render France à naval taxes was over-estimated. Thus the power. Dock-yards had been formed two budgets of 1812 and 1813, upon where scarce fishing boats had former- close examination, exhibited a deficit ly entered. Even Paris itself had seen of upwards of three hundred and a naval arsenal within its walls. One twelve millions of livres, or thirteen hundred and fifty millions of livres had millions sterling. Buonaparte was not been sacrificed to these visions, of ignorant of this fact, but concealed it which no trace now remained but a from the eyes of the nation, in hopes few rotted vessels, unfit even for their of replacing it, as in his more successdestined purpose while pew, and works ful days, by foreign tribute, and, in constructed at immense expense, aban. the mean time, supplying himself by doned to the winds and tides, which the anticipation of other funds; as an were daily burying them with sand. unfaithful book-keeper makes up a The great expenditure on the dock. plausible balance to meet the eye of yard and basins at Antwerp, which his master, and covers his peculations had now passed away from the French by his dexterity in the use of cyphers. empire, did not escape notice and cen- Upon the whole, the debts of France gure. But above all, it was complain. appeared to have increased in the ed, that while the imperial govern- course of thirteen years to the extent ment had thus emptied the arsenals, of 1,615,469,000 francs, or more than and exhausted the treasures of France, sixty-eight millions and a half of sterin efforts ostensibly to form a navy, thc Jing money. imperial mandates had virtually given The report proceeded to notice the moral state of the country, and that Talleyrand, as was supposed,) had for of public instruction, and concluded a time a happy effect on the temper with a passage which proved but too of the nation, and prepared the two prophetic: "Unhappily we cannot also branches of the legislature to receive restore at once to France those mo- favourably the financial projects which ral habits and that public spirit which the ministers were next to submit to cruel misfortunes and long oppression them. have there almost annihilated! Noble Upon the 23d of August, 1814, the sentiments were opposed; generous budget proposed by the ministers of ideas were stifled; the government, France, after undergoing the revi. not content with condemning to inac- sion of the central committee, was tion the virtues which it dreaded, ex- presented to the Chamber of Depucited and fomented the passions which ties. The ministers, professing their could do it service; to suppress pub- resolution to keep faith with the crelic spirit, it called personal interest to ditors of the state of every descripits aid; it offered its favours to ambi- tion, announced that the pressing tion, in order to silence conscience; debts of the state, which could be in. it left no other state but that of ser- stantly demanded by the creditors, ving it, no other hope but those which amounted only to 759 millions of it could alone fulfil; no ambition ap- francs, not quite thirty-two millions peared indiscreet, no pretension ex- sterling. For reimbursement of this aggerated; hence that incessant agi- sum, the first resource proposed was tation of all interests and of all wishes; the sale of 300,000 hectaries (being hence that instability of situation which about one-fifth part) of the national left hardly any man the virtues of his forests. Voluntary subscriptions, and condition, because all thought only of the sale of the property of the conemerging from it; hence, in fine, in- munes, was to provide for the balance cessant attacks upon every kind of of the debt. In the meanwhile, miniprobity by seductions against which sters proposed to issue bills upon the the most generous characters could royal treasury, bearing an interest of hardly defend themselves.

eight per cent., an advantage which “Such were the melancholy effects was thought absolutely necessary to of that destructive system which we prevent depreciation of the governhave now to combat. The difficulties ment securities in the market. of the moment are great, but much The budget underwent a severe may be expected from time; the na- scrutiny in the Chamber of Deputies, tion will feel that its zealous concur- where there was already a powerful rence is necessary to hasten the re- and organized opposition to the admiturn of its own happiness ; its conti- nistration. Messrs Flaugergues, Du. dence in the initentions of its king, moulard, and especially Monsieur the lights and wisdom of the two Desgraves, attacked the means prochambers, will render the task of go- posed to discharge the debt, as partly vernment more casy. If any thing dangerous, partly delusive. The sale can prevent the speedy realization of of the national forests, it was said, these hopes, it will be that restless must destroy the means of supporting turbulence which wishes to enjoy, the French navy in future wars, and without delay, the blessings of which render her dependant on foreign it has the prospect."

countries for naval timber. But the This exposé, which was drawn up granting treasury bonds, bearing the with great talent and perspicuity, (by exorbitant interest of eight per cent.

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