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demnities, to be arranged on such a the spectators of the rapid fall of that footing as would suit the finances of the government still so stupified by that state, and which would provide for catastrophe, as not to have meditated the wants, not only of the emigrants, on its causes? Are they ignorant that but of the military veterans whose neither constitutions, nor laws, nor pensions had remained unpaid since armies, defend governments against the disastrous campaign of Moscow. the mass of social interests ? Are they

In his speech upon the pro- ignorant that when these interests are Dec. 6, posed plan of the ministers, in imminent peril, governments feel 1814. he gave his full assent to the the first effects ?” restoration of the unsold

Having thus pointed out the hazard estates, as a measure dictated by jus. of any attempt to disturb the present tice ; since, the grounds of sequestra- state of property which had passed tion or confiscation no longer subsist- into the hands of third persons, he ing, the forfeiture ended from the announced his intention of bringing moment France received in her bosom forward a double plan for indemnifyher banished children ; but he coming, upon a liberal principle, the emiplained, that the imprudent discussions grants whose property had been transwhich had taken place on the delicate ferred to third parties, and for paying topic had re-opened the wounds and the donations or pensions of the army awakened the rankling jealousies of which had, during Buonaparte's prothe country;

“ One would,” said the sperity, been paid from countries bemarshal, “ be almost tempted to be- yond the verge of France, and since lieve, that it is the secret intentions the retreat of Moscow had not been of some persons to poison the national paid at all. feeling, if one were not aware to what Upoa the 10th December, Marshal an extent the spirit of party may lead Macdonald resumed the subject, and astray the most correct minds. On brought forward his proposed plan. the arrival of the son of St Louis, Its particulars are of less consequence France was strewed with flowers, and than the speech which introduced it, now all the spots which witnessed our and which throws considerable light civil dissensions are marked by monu- upon the state of France at this moments of mourning, though, after so mentous period, and the nature of the many calamities, what place may not internal convulsions with which she in its turn claim the melancholy ho- was menaced. nour of exciting painful recollections ? There had been concluded directly

“ There cannot be a doubt, that with the government 1,055,889 sales. millions of purchasers of national pro- Giving each purchaser a family of perty are alarmed at the direction three persons, considerably upwards which some individuals endeavour to of three millions of persons were integive to public opinion; and some peo- rested in the stability of these sales ple have rejoiced at their alarm, as if from the outset; and allowing that it would occasion a voluntary aban- number to be trebled by the common donment. Chimerical hopes are even proportion of sales and partition, the cherished, that fears, skilfully insi- number of persons so interested would Quated into men's minds, will anew in twenty-five years amount to betwixt occasion changes of property, which nine and ten millions, “ Against this all the power of the strongest govern- Colossus, whose height the eye canment of which history contains any re- not measure, some impotent efforts cord would have failed to effect. Are would affect to direct themselves ;

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but the wisdom of the king has fore. that pride, the companion of the unseen this danger, even for the sake of fortunate : and instead of sharing the those imprudent persons who might common complaints upon the recepexpose themselves to it.”_ The na- tion of our brethren restored to us, tional sales respected either the lands let us recognise Frenchmen in the of the church or of private property. disinterested calm of the greater part The former the marshal discussed in of them, and in the nobleness of their a supimary manner. 66 France has attitude." groaned over the misfortunes of her The existence of the old proprieclergy; but in giving them her tears tors in the presence of the acquirers she has confirmed the alienation of of their property, is a fact which their property. It was otherwise with they themselves must be aware can. the privaie property of individuals. not and ought not to cease to exist,

• The miracles of Providence,” said The necessary consequence the mar. Marshal Macdonald, “ which have shal inferred was, “ that we remove raised up the empire of the lilies, have the difficulty, instead of vainly trying attached a particular characier to a to conquer it: to change the present numerous class of citizens; they ap- situation for a new one: in a word, to pear in the midst of us, protected by dare to make known the abyss opened age and misfortune; they are a kind before us, to leap it, and, armed with of crusaders, who have followed the all the generosity and torce of the na. standard of the cross into forei n tion, to launch into a vast system of countries, and they relate to us those indemnity.” long vicissitudes, those storms and From various calculations, through tempests which had at length driven which we cannot follow him, Marthem into the port where they had shal Macdonald concluded that on lost all hope of reaching. Which of the most forced pposition, the va. us could refuse to give them our hand lue of the forfeitures or sales could in token of eternal alliance ? Our not exceed three hundred millions of hearts have been moved. If theirs livres, (L.12,500,000 sterling) and to have remained colder, can we be as- this extent, therefore, at the utmost, tonished? The return of the king, were indemnities to be provided. the bearer of the olive of peace, ex“ This value," he proceeded, “though ceeded all our hopes-one only of immense in the eyes of those who have theirs is realized. In truth, the first of lost it, and intolerable to them as they their wishes is accomplished. The witness the property which it reprelowers of St Louis have seen again sents in the possession of others, their heir..But what changes have would be almost unperceived in the been operated in France ! - What de- calculations of a great nation, if its struction consummated! What mo. first want, in reviving to order, were numents overthrown! What others not the sentiment of justice and geneerected upon their ruins ! - What rosity. This sentiment requires that prosperous dreams vanished in one the country should place itself, by an day, after having been for so many indemnity, between the ancient pronights the consulations of the exile! prietors and the acquirers, and that, Let us dive into our hearts to judge by its liberality toward the one, it put our fellow men. Let us place our an end to the recollections of all."* selves, in thought, in the position I Marshal Macdonald proposed to calhave described : let us add to the culate the indemnities to be granted sentiments with which they inspire us, to the original proprietors of the na

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tional domains, as annuities equal ei. state, were reduced, by the disconti. ther to one third of the revenues of nuance of their endowments, which the alienated property, valued as in they had bought with their blood in a 1790. or more simply by an annuity thousand battles. France, he said, of two and a half per cent. on the va- would require only to expend three lue of the lands. The limitalion of millions of livres more to acquit herthe claim to one-third of its original self of this sacred debt. extent, was to put the emigranis on a Marshal Macdonald might have sefooting with other creditors of France, veral motives for uniting in the same to whom she had only paid that com- proposal, the indemnities of the veteposition on their full claims.

ran soldiers with those of the emigrant The great and obvious difficulty in nobles. He might think it became his the existing state of France, was, to rank in the army, to shew tha!, in refind funds for paying these annuities, commending the claims of the emior indemnities, which he computed grants to consideration, he had not might amount to twelve millions of forgot those of his unfortunate brelivres, (or L.500,000 sterling) yearly. thren in arms; or perhaps, that treating This difficulty Marshal Macdonald both parties as if their claims were on left unsolved, and contented liimself a parity, might have some effect in exwith referring generally to the sum of tinguishing their natural hatred and thirty millions, (being a third part of jealousy of each other. Bui this union the produce of the duties, on register. of two subjects, not very naturally ing sales of land) as the assured pledge connected, in the same motion, gave of the indemnities. This was a branch rise to a singular misconception, or raof revenue, be observed, which was on ther wilful misrepresentation, in the the eve of being ruined by the discre. Journal de Paris. The Marshal's dit cast upon property of this nature ; speech, as reported in that paper, was whereas by satisfying the claim of the made to conclude " with a declaration emigrants, and putting them to rest in the name of the French armies, that for ever, security would be restored to in order to give the emigrants deprive the actual proprietors, sales and trans. ed of property a mark of cons deration ferences would multiply more than and interest, the armies had resolved to ever, and the income arising from the form a fund of twelve millions out of registration of these transactions would their pay, from generals down to the sola be not only preserved to the state, diers.but greatly increased. There there- As nothing could be more improba. fore was a fund for defraying the ex- ble than that the army should volun. pence of the proposed plan, which, tarily assess themselves, to form a fund without some such measures were car- for the subzistence of the despoiled ried into effect, would soon cease to emigrants, a class of men with whom of make part of the income of the state, all others they had the least sympathy,

The Marshal concluded with advert- so nothing could be calculated to make ing to the pensions of th: military, a worse impression on the minds and which, having been charged upon tempers of the soldiers, than the idea funds payable from conquered coun- that such a measure was proposed to tries which had now been regained be carried into execution at their extrom France, had not been paid since pence. Government endeavoured to the Russian campaign. He drew a repair the mischief, by an exertion of picture of the misery to which the arbitrary authority, and suppressed the Veteran soldiers, pensioners of the publication of the offending journal. The punishment was not undeserved, for publishing falsehood, or for profor it seems impossible that a misre- mulgating truths, which the governpresentation so gross, and so hazardous ment did not desire should be made in its consequences, could flow from known. And as the greater part of any thing but premeditated malice, mankind are disposed to believe the But if, as would have bee

the case

very worst of their rulers, the false rein England, the printer had been calle port spread by the Journal de Paris ed to account for breach of privilege, obtained some credit from the very and his defence heard, the malicious means used to suppress it. Thus does report would have experienced a com- arbitrary power often ever-shoot its plete refutation in the public discussion own object of aim. which must have taken place. As it was To conclude this chapter with the managed in France, the arbitrary sup- same metaphor which commenced it, pression of the paper became the prin- the throne of France was situated on cipal feature in the case, and served the crest of a volcano, firm indeed only to show that free discussion, on in outward appearance, but with torthe part of the French press, was at an rents of lava boiling beneath, and end, leaving the public uncertain whe- deceitful ashes for its sole foundation. ther the journal had been suppressed


Leaders of the Jacobins.--Carnot-His History

His Memorial against the Bourbons.-Fouché-His Share in the Massacres of the Revolution-His Conduct on the King's Restoration.-Intrigues and Misrepresentations of the Disaffected under these Leaders.--Warlike Preparations in France National Dislike to the English.--Duke of Wellington's Residence in Paris. -Policy of Talleyrand at the Congress. He endeavours to direct the Resentment of the Allies against Bernadotte Against Murat.-Arrest of Lord Oxford, and Seizure of his Papers.--Affair of General Excelman. His Petition to the Chamber of DeputiesThat of General Grissoles-Etselman is tried by a Court Martial, and acquitted.-Insubordination of the Army.--Life of Napoleon at Elba.--His Conversations with his Visi. tors.-His Character begins to be more favourably considered.-- Arts of his Emissaries to fix the public Mind of France upon him.-His Correspondence with Murat-With France.-Females engaged in the Plot.- Organization of the Conspiracy.Imperfect State of the

Parisian Police.-Correspondence with Elba maintained through the Royal Post-Office. Every thing is prepared for the bursting forth of the Conspiracy.

Among the intriguers by whose ma- Carnot was the associate and col. chinations the Bourbon dynasty was league of Robespierre during the whole endangered, two leaders of the jacobin of that monster's reign. His admirers party were chiefly remarkable. Both pretend, that charging himself only were distinguished by audacity, acti- with the conduct of the foreign war, vity, and talents, as well as by an ex

he left to his brethren of the committee perimental knowledge of the revolu- of public safety the sole charge of tionary springs, and of the complicated those measures, for which no human movements on which their efficiency language affords epithets of sufficient depends; but Carnot was esteemed a horror, through which they originally staunch unyielding republican; Fouché, rose to power, and by which they a statesman capable of temporizing and maintained it. According to these accommodating his service to the party fond advocates, their hero held his which was uppermost. In the various course through the reign of terror unand fitting scenes of the French Re. 'sullied by a bloody spot, as Arethusa volution, each had played important rolled her waters through the ocean parts; and as we are not among those without mingling with its waves ! who think a politician can change his and the faith of most readers will nature, as a stage-player does his swallow the ancient miracle as easily as clothes with every new character in the modern. That Carnot voted for the which he is called upon to appear, we

murder of one of the most well meanwill briefly recal to the mind of our ing and guiltless monarchs that ever readers what these parts were. reigned, will by his favourers be con.

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