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sidered rather as matter of praise; was soon evident that Carnot had apand we have heard him lauded, be prehensions for freedom during the cause, after the fall of Robespierre, mild and even feeble government of which he aided to accomplish so soon Louis XVIII., which had never stiras he saw that the fate of Danton im. red him into action under that of pended over his own head, he had ex. Buonaparte, under whom he lived a erted himself with the successful par. peaceful, if a relactant subject. To ty to prevent re-action, a cant expres- ulcerate the wounds of the state, to sion, which, in that case, theant to se. inflame the giddy and headlong pascure from condign punishment some sions of the factious, which might of the most blood-thirsty wretches otherwise have become gradually less who ever polluted the face of a land. violent, was a work worthy of the colCarnot was condemned to transporta- league of Robespierre, who, if his tion on the ephemeral supreinacy ob- secret motives might be guessed, tained by the Directory on the revo. would have submitied to any species lution of the 18th Fructidor, and re- of government in preference to be. stored by that of the 18th Brumaire. holding on the throne of France a He was then created minister of war, family whom he had most cruelly and tribune; and let us not refuse wronged, and under whose governhim the praise, that when he percei- ment decency forbade him to hope ved the ambitious views of Buonapar- for more than safety and protection. te, he resigned his offices, inscribed It is thus that, in the commencement his vote against the Corsican's being of civil commotion, men take up arms created consul for life, and against his for principles, but seldom have long subsequent assumption of the imperi- stood in opposition to each other, ere al dignity, and retired to a voluntary private interests and personal preju. exile at a time when Napoleon would dices are substituted for the public have doubtless been glad to purchase reasons of quarrel, and partizans turn his acknowledged talents ai no low their back without hesitation on the rate. From this period he led the life cause they have espoused, that they of a privale citizen until the campaign may still point their swords against the of 1814, when, not without an insult throats of those whom they consider which the times rendered perfectly as their personal antagonists. gate, he off-red Buonaparte' his ser- The name of Carnot, and his high vices for the defence of Antwerp, the talents, weil shewn in the manageevents of which we have mentioned in ment of the wars of the republic, comour last volume. He gave in his adhe. bined with the character he had ac. sion late and reluctantly to the Bour. quired for independence. by deserting bon dynasty,* and was restored to, or Bu naparle in his rising, and adhering confirmed in, the rank of inspector-ge. to him in his falling state, gave great peral of the engineers.

weight to the opinions he expressed He who declares his solemn sub- upon the state of pubiic affairs under mission tó a form of government, the Bourbons. They were enibodied more especially who accepts rank of in a Memorial made public in the any kind from its favour, must, in ho month of December, 1814, in which nous and good faith, be considered as every fault commilled by the restored binuing himself at least to abstain family is exaggerated, and they, with from conspiring its downtail; but it the nobles, their personal adhereils,

* See Moniteur, 16th April, 1814.

are, under a thin and contemptuous The doctrine of regicide is said to veil of assumed respect towards the be confirmed in the Old Testament ; king, treated alike as fools, who did families were massacred, -monarchs not understand how to govern France, proscribed,-intolerance promulgated and as villains who meditated her ruin. by the ministers of a merciful Deity : The murder of the king is, with irony Wherefore, then, should not the jacoas envenomed as unjust, stated to have bins put Louis XVI. to death ?" If it been occasioned, not by the violence was alleged, that the persons of kings and cruelty of his persecutors, but by were inviolable by the laws of all cithe pusillanimity of his nobility, who vil governments, those of usurpers first provoked the resentment of the certainly were not so protected ; and nation and then fed from the king what means were there, says Carnot, dom, when, if they had loved their so- for positively distinguishing between vereign, they should have rallied an usurper and a legitimate king? The around him. This plea, in the mouth difficulty of making such a distinction of a regicide, is as if one of a band of was, no doubt, a sufficient vindication robbers should iinpute an assassination of the judges of Louis XVI. Trash not to their own guilty violence, but like this had scarce been written since to the cowardice of the domestics of the club-room of jacobins was closed. the murdered, by whom that violence But the object of Carnot's pamphlet might have been resisted. No one was not to excuse a deed which he also knew better than Carnot by what would probably have boasted as laudaarts Louis XVI. was induced by de. ble, but by the exaggerations of his grees to abandon all means of defence eloquence, and the weight of his inwhich his situation afforded him, and fluence with the public, lo animate to throw himself upon the sworn faith the fury of the other parıies against and allegiance of those by whom he the Bourbons and their adherents. was condemned to death. As whim- The king was charged with having sical and unlogical were the examples been ungrateful to the call of the naand arguments he referred to in sup- tion, a call which assuredly he would port of the condemnation of Louis. never have heard but for the cannon Cicero, it seems, says in his Offices, of the allies,—with having termed hiin. • We hate all those we fear, and we self king by the grace of God, with wish for the death of those we hate.” resigning Belgium when Carnot was On this comprehensive ground, Care actually governor of Antwerp, with not vindicates the orator's approbation preferring Chouans, Vendeans, emiof the death of Cæsar, notwithstand- grants, Cossacks, or Englishmen, to ing the clemency of the usurper; and the soldiers whose victories had kept Cato, indeed, (continues the collea- him in exile, and in consequence of gue of Robespierre) went farther, and whose defeat alone he had regained did not think it possible there should the throne of his fathers. The emi. be a good king. Of course, not Louis grants are represented as an exaspeXVI. alone, but all monarchs may be rated, yet a contemptible faction. The justly put to death, in Monsieur Care people, it is said, care little about the Dot's estimation, because they are pa. right of their rulers, -about their turally the objects of fear to their sub- quarrels,—their private life, or even jects, and because we hate those we their political crimes, unless as they fear, and because, according to the affect themselves. All government, of kindred authority of Shylock, no man course, has its basis in popular opi. hates the thing he would not kill. nion; but, alas ! in actual history, "the people are only regarded,” says Mon- tive spirit to oppress the inferior agents sieur Carnot, " as the victims of their in an alleged libel, while the ministers chiefs; we witness nothing but the dared not bring to trial the avowed contest of subjects for the private in, author. In this unquestionably they terest of their princes,-kings, who are argued justly; for the measures corthemselves regicides and parricides, responded with the paltry policy, which and priests who incite mankind to mu. would rather assail the liberty of the tual slaughter. “ The eye can but re- press, than bring to fair trial and open pose on the generous efforts of some punishment those by whomitismisused. brave men who consecrate themselves If Carnot aspired to influence the to the deliverance of their fellow- jacobin faction, and the converts whom countrymen ; if they succeed, they are they daily acquired by his reputation called heroes,-if they fail, they are for military science and for republican traitors and demagogues.” In this, spirit, Fouché was not less distinguishand other passages, the author plainly ed for the civil endowments which intimated what spirits were at work, their cause required. To his share in and what was the object of their ma. the cruelties of the revolution, and eschinations. The whole pamphlet was pecially of the reign of terror, no designed as a manifesto to the French doubt attaches. The name of Fouché public, darkly, yet distinctly, announ- of Nantes is written in bloody letters cing the existence of a formidable in these dreadful pages; and his own conspiracy, the principles on which its dispatches to the committee of public members proceeded, and their grounds safety, as well as the laudatory comfor expecting success.

ments of Chaumette, Robespierre, and Carnot himself affected to say, that other heroes of that period, are on the Memorial was only designed for record to prove, that at Nevers and circulation among his private connec- at Lyons, he was the willing agent of tions. But it would not have answer- their most sanguinary decrees, and ed the intended purpose had it not reported their execution with the Sarbeen printed and dispersed with the donic sneer of one delighted by the most uncommon assiduity. Small exercise of his bloody vocation. He carts traversed the boulevards, from presided at, and be reported, the dreadwhich it was hawked about among ful wholesale executions which took the people, in order to avoid the pe- place in the square at Lyons, and as. nalties which booksellers and station- sociated with the horrible Collot D'ers might have incurred by dealing in Herbois. He regretted the slow means an article so inflammatory. Notwith- which their zeal employed in the destanding these evasions, the printers struction of that beautiful city. “ Inand retailers of this diatribe were pro- dulgence," said his official dispatch, secuted by government, but the Cour “ would be a criminal weakness de d'Instruction Criminelle refused to con- molition proceeds too slowly: There firm the bill of indictment, and this must be more rapid means for the grafailure served to encourage the jaco- tification of republican impatience; bin faction. The official proceedings, the explosion of the mine,--thedevourby which the ministers endeavoured ing activity of fire, can alone express to suppress the publication, irritated the power of the people. Their will is rather than intimidated those who incapable of being checked like that took interest in it. It argued, they of tyrants ;-it ought to have the said, at once a timorous and a vindic. speed and the force of thunder." *

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The actions of these representatives capacity for this important office. It of the people kept pace with their em- is certain that he lost for a season phatic language. Upwards of four hun- the confidence of the jacobin faction dred of the most respectable citizens while acting under the imperial goof Lyons were executed by the guil- vernment; but he regained it in some lotine and by discharges of musketry.* measure by his disgrace with BuonaMenaced with the vengeance which parte. The occasion was never disovertook someof his colleagues, Fouché tinctly known, but it has been supposheltered himself under the protection sed that Buonaparte suspected Fouché of Tallien, and afterwards under that of a desire to form an interest se. of Barras, and totally changed his opi- parate from his own, by means of nions in politics. He was the foremost the immense influence and extento denounce the club of jacobins, in sive information vested in him by which he had so often presided; and virtue of his office. The pretext of in the revolution of 18th Brumaire, the government of Rome removed (8th November, 1799,) when the vi- this dangerous servant into an hosion of Liberty and Equality vanished nourable exile, and the breach bebefore a military government, Fouché tween the emperor and his miniswas the first to hail the rising sun. ter of police, 'restored to the latHe kept pace with Napoleon in pro- ter the confidence of his republican motion, and as his master became Con. friends. But Fouché did not belong sul for ten years, for life, and finally

to that class of statesmen who make Emperor, Fouclé became Senator, a point of becoming the victims of Grand Eagle of the Legion of Honour, their principles. By means which may Duke, and Peer of France. But these easily be conceived, he had acquired were only honorary distinctions. As immense wealth, and was in no hurry an apostate priest, Fouché was with to lose it by engaging in any hazardous out religion; as a Septembrizer, he adventure, until he had examined the was devoid of mercy; unfettered by probable stability of the new royal the scruples of Carnot, he made few government, and ascertained whether pretensions to political consistency, his services would be acceptable to and was therefore, in every point of Louis XVIII. He solicited and obview, suited for the office of minister tained an audience of the king soon of police, which, for nearly ten years, after acknowledging his sovereignty. be held under Napoleon. During this While he attended in the anti-chamber all-seeing and all-scrutinizing occupa- to be introduced, he observed a sneer tion, Fouché, doubtless, became the on the countenance of some royalists master of many a dark and dangerous who were in waiting, and gave them secret, and the agent of much hidden a lesson that a minister of police, even oppression. The journals, the thea- when he has lost his office, is not a tres, the management of domestic person to be jested with. “You, sir," spies, the charge of watching the in- said he, to a gentleman, "seem proud trigues of the clergy, the emigrants, of the lilies with which you are adornthe Chouins, the Vendeans--all fell ed. Do you recollect the language under his charge; and the well-known you held respecting the Bourbon fakidnapping of Sir Thomas Rumbold, mily some time since in such a comMr Drake, Georges, Pichegru, Moreau, pany! -- And you, madam," (he conand the Duke D'Enghien, altested his tinuel, addressing a lady,) "io whom

• Moniteur, 20th December, 1793.


I gave a passport to England, may, manding their attendance, lived in the perhaps, wish to be reminded of what greatest security. Cambaceres conthen passed betwixt us on the subject tinued to maintain the same style of of Louis XVIII.” The laughers were luxury at his table, and was quitted for conscience-struck, and Fouché was in the self-imposed fine of two hundred troduced into the cabinet. What pass- francs, (81. 6s. Ed.) subscribed toed betwixt Louis and this person can- wards erecting a new statue of Henri not be known; but it may be presumed Quatre. The folding doors of the that Fouché's motives were to offer his Tuilleries still opened to receive Leservices to the king, and it is said that brun, (late Duke of Placentia) in his he recommended the organization of capacity of arch-treasurer, of the ema police, which should be effectual for pire. Savary, so long the manager of the security of the government, with- Buonaparte's high police, with his out being odious or oppressive to the subaltern agents of oppression, walkpeople. It would certainly have been ed the streets without notice or insult. of the last consequence to Louis to Carnot, David, and other men of lethave secured the attachment of this ters, who had mingled in the revolusagacious, though unprincipled states- tion, now figured in the institute, as if man, and through him a complete ac. literary employment was to be hencequaintance with the secrets of Na- forward the business of their lives. Un. poleon's government. Accordingly, der all this apparent peace and secuLouis is said to have received him rity, the bonds of jacobinical fraternity with courtesy, and even favour. But were in secret renewed, and the memFouché's vote on the late king's death bers of the confederacy might be discould scarce be forgiven by his bro- tinguished by the well-disciplined unther, even if the memory of that and animity with which they praised or his other crimes had not been thun- blamed, censured or approved, indidered into the ears of Louis by the viduals or opinions. royalists around him. Fouché soon But it was chiefly their business to saw all hopes from the royal favour insist upon the faults of the royal fawere vain, and placed himself once mily, and their prejudices against the more at the head of the jacobin, or, as men and measures of that period they called themselves, the patriotic when France was successful in foreign party, whom he had deserted and be. war, against the statesmen who direct. trayed under the reign of Napoleon, ed, and the soldiers who achieved her and whom he was destined, in the gigantic enterprizes. The king, they course of this marvellous year, once said, had suffered misfortune without more to desert and betray.

having learned wisdom ;-he was inHeaded by the audacious Carnot capable of stepping beyond the circle and the wily Fouché, the ancient as- of his Gothic prejudices ;-France had sertors of the republican cause, as well received him from the hand of foreign as the later agents of Buonaparte's ty- conquerors, surrounded by an emaciaranny, with many who had played ted groupe of mendicant nobles, whose both parts in this changefui drama, pretensions were as antiquated and began to reappear on the public stage absurd as their decorations and manwith new courage and confidence. ners. His government went to divide, The members of Buonaparte's senate, they alleged, the French into two who had been dismissed from the classes, opposed to each other in meHouse of Peers in the most gentle rits as in interests—the emigrants, who manner, by receiving, namely, no in- alone were regarded as faithful and timation or letter from the king com- willing subjects, and the rest of the

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