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of a military chief over a conquered own liberty. The offer imports nopeople. The nation did not rise to thing which can be relied on, except resist Buonaparte or defend Louis, that he is afraid of the allies. Disbecause the nation could not rise up- perse the alliance, and farewell to the on the army. Her mind as well as liberty of France, and safety of Eu. her constitution was conquered; in rope." fact there was no nation-every thing The point of immediate war, rather was army, and every thing was con- than the dubious and uncertain state quest. Buonaparte, it seems, is to re- of armed peace, which seemed to be concile everything by the gift of a recommended by Lord Grey and the free constitution : He took possession gentlemen of the opposition, was well of Holland, he did not give her a free argued by Mr Plunket, who showed constitution-he took possession of that the chance of success by a present Spain, he did not give her a free con- effort, when we could reckon on the stitution—he took possession of Swit. Co-operation of all Europe, and a conzerland, whose independence he bad siderable portion of France herself, guaranteed, he did not give her a free was greater now than it could be at constitution-he took possession of any subsequent period. “When we Italy, he did not give her a free saw the situation in which Buonaparte constitution he took possession of now stood; when we saw him reduced France, he did not give her a free to make professions contrary to his constitution. On the contrary, he de- very nature ; when we saw the vessel stroyed the directorial constitution in which his fortunes were embarked he destroyed the consular constitu- labouring with the storm, and its mast tion--and he destroyed the late con- bowed down to the water's edge, it stitution, formed on the plan of Eng. would be the height of impolicy and land. But now he is, with the assist. absurdity to hesitate on the course ance of the jacobins, to give her liber. that we had to pursue. We had now ty; that is, the man who can bear no a most powerful combination of allies, freedom, unites to form a constitution not fomented by us, but acting from with a body who can bear no govern- the moral feeling which pervaded all ment. In the mean time, while he Europe. If we were foolish enough professes liberty, he exercises despotic to throw away those means, we could power-he annihilates the nobles--he never hope to recall them. Those of banishes the deputies of the people his friends who had talked the most and he sequesters the property of the about husbanding the resources of the emigrants ;-now he is to give liber- country, had confessed, that when an ty! I have seen his constitution, as occasion should arrive when some exhibited in the newspaper—there important blow could be struck against are faults innumerable in the frame of the enemy, that system should no it, and more in the manner of accept- longer be persevered in. That iming it: It is to be passed by subscrip- portant crisis bad now arrived. It was tion without discussion; the troops are vain to expect that a more favourable to send deputies, and the army is to opportunity would ever arrive. All preside. There is some cunning, how- the great powers of Europe were now ever, in making the subscribers to the with us, and a considerable portion of constitution renounce the House of the population of France. It had been Bourbon. They are to give their said, that invading France would be word for the deposition of the king, the way to unite the population of and take Napoleon's word for their that country. The fact, however, was

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directly the reverse. The not inva- the modesty of truth, and states noding France would be the sure means thing as it is, and every thing as it is of reducing the whole population un. not: the attitude is affected, the taste der the power of the present ruler. is corrupted, and the intellect pervertHe considered, that we had, in fact, ed. Do you wish to confirm this mi. no option between peace and war. As litary tyranny in the heart of Europe? for peace, we could have no more -a tyranny founded on the triumph than a feverish, unrefreshing dream of of the army over the principles of cipeace, still haunted by the spectre of vil government--an experiment to re

In point of finances, we should lax the moral and religious influences, find a peace, with a war establishment, and to set heaven and earth adrift from an evil much greater than war itself. one another--an insurrectionary hope If we did not now go to war in con- to every bad man in the community, junction with all the great powers of and a frightful lesson of profit and Europe, we would soon be reduced power, vested in those who have pan. to a war single-handed against France. dered their allegiance from king to If we did not now invade France, and emperor, and now found their pretencarry on the war upon her territories, sions to domination on the merit of the time might arrive when our coun. breaking their oaths, and deposing try would become the seat of war, their sovereign. Should you do any and we would fall unpitied and despi. thing so monstrous as to leave your sed. If we were now to turn our back allies, in order to confirm such a sysupon the great powers that were our tem-should you forget your name allies, we should deserve that all na- forget your ancestors, and the inhetions should turn their backs upon us ritance they have left you of morality when we began to feel the consequen- and renown,-should you astonish Euces of our impolicy."

rope by quitting your allies, to render Similar conclusions were yet more immortal such a composition, would forcibly deduced by Mr Grattan. Of not the nations exclaim, · You have the Bourbons he spoke as of a dynas- very providently watched over our inty, “under whose sway all subjects, terests, and very generously have you except the administration, had been contributed to our service, and do you open to free discussion ; so that learn- faulter now?' • In vain have you ing, arts, and sciences, had made ra- stopped, in your own person, the flypid progress, and England had bor- ing fortunes of Europe,-in vain have rowed not a little from the temperate you taken the eagle of Napoleon, and meridian of that government. Her snatched invincibility from his standcourt stood controlled by opinion, li- ard, if now, when confederated Eumited by principles of honour, and rope is ready to march, you take the softened by the influence of manners; lead in the desertion, and preach the and, on the whole, there was an ame- penitence of Buonaparte and the ponity in the condition of France which verty of England.' rendered the French an amiable, an As to her poverty, you must not enlightened, a gallant, and accomplish- consider the money you spend in your ed race : over this gallant race you see defence, but the fortune you would imposed an oriental despotism; their lose if you were not defended; and, present court has gotten the idiom of further, you must recollect you will the east as well as her constitution ; a pay less to an immediate war than to fantastic and barbaric expression, an peace with a war establishment, and a unreality, which leaves in the shade war to follow it ; recollect further, that

whatever be your resources they must property and subvert the constitution. outlast those of all your enemies; and Such evil counsellors, it was stated, further, that your empire cannot be had already by corrupt influence obsaved by a calculation : besides, your tained a re-enactment of the property wealth is only part of your situation;

tax : With much more to the same the name you have established, the purpose, couched in terms so disredeeds you have achieved, and the spectful, that the House refused to part you have sustained, preclude you permit the petition to be laid on the from a second place among nations; table. and when you cease to be the first, The next communications of the you are nothing."

minister announced the Such were the arguments used in manner in which the sti

May 30. the parliament of Britain on this mo. pulations of the treaties mentous occasion. Fortunately, not entered into at Vienna were to be for this country only, but for Europe, carried into practical effect. The those prevailed which preferred an continental powers had agreed to instant and a manly assertion of our bring into the field contingents conrights to enforce the broken treaties siderably stronger than the treaties of Fontainbleau and Paris, to the stipulated, while Great Britain, mainequally expensive, and far less effec- taining an army of 50,000 men only, tual measures, of armed neutrality was to pay in terms of the treaty for and husbanding our resources, recom

one hundred thousand. Of the col. mended by the opposition. The di- lective force, the following was the vision in the House of Peers was 156 statement : in favour of the address, to 44 for the amendment moved by Lord Grey. In Austria supplied 300,000 soldiers. the House of Commons the parties

Russia,
Prussia,

236,000 divided 92 to 331.

States of Germany, If any thing could have rendered

Great Britain, the war more a necessary measure in Holland,

50,000 the eyes of the friends of good order, it must have been the views taken of The formidable total amounted to it by those who are almost the pro- one million and eleven thousand solfessed contemners of the constitution diers. and character of their country, and It was the wealth of Britain alone who have used the right of petitioning by which this formidable array could only to insult the legislature with the be put in motion. The sum which effrontery of sturdy beggars, whose was to be paid in lieu of her full conmode of solicitation is threats and tingent of troops, was two millions abuse. A petition from the inhabit. and a half. A similar sum was voted ants of Westminster was presented to be applied to the aid of the confeby Sir Francis Burdett. This docu- deracy, in the mode which should be ment stigmatized the proposed war judged most advisable. This sum of against France as an act not only flag- five millions, with one million for the rantly unjust, but resembling despe- reparation of the fortifications in Hole ration or insanity, which they could land and Flanders, was voted by the only impute to the policy of those great majority of one hundred and domestic enemies, who had an inte. sixty-seven to seventeen votes. The rest in stirring up foreign war, that few members who made this opposithey might cheat the people of their tion, having dwelt much on the ex

225,000

150,000
50,000

pense incurred in the preceding war there was no hope of peace in the prewith France, were called on by Mr sent circumstances, or of any aid to Charles Grant to remember the trium- be obtained from beyond the fronphant effect to which these subsidies tiers of France, excepting in case of had led, and exhorted to expect from the success of Murat. The enter. the present a result still more trium- prize of that person is so closely con. phant and decisive.

hected with the history of France, These determined measures on the that it becomes necessary to trace it part of the allies served to convince to a period, before completing that France and her present ruler, thật of Buonaparte himself,

CHAP, XI.

Situation of Murat. - Debate concerning him in the House of Commons.--Dis

affection in the Milanese Territory- Riots in the Theatre.--- Murat puts his Army in motion--His dubious Policy-He occupies Rome, and commences offensive Operations against the Austrians-His Proclamation from Rimini He attacks the Lower Po, and is defeated at Occhiebello - Commences his Retreat-Solicits an Armistice, and is refused.--Battle of Tolentino.- Mrrat's Defeat and disastrous Retreat-He is intercepted at Saint Germano by General Nugent- His Rear-guard destroyed.-Flies alone to Naples-sind from thence to France.--General Insurrection in Naples und Calabria.--The Queen surrenders to the British - The Austrians occupy Naple : Surrender of the Neapolitan Army. Restoration of King Ferdinand.-Murat in danger of being killed by the Royalists Flies to Corsica --Refuses a Retreat of fered to him in Austria-His Proclamation to the Neapolitans--Lands near Pizzo-But is defeated and made Prisoner-And tried and executed by a Neapolitan Court-Martial,

JOACHIM MURAT had trodden the confirmed his right to the throne of paths of French revolution with suc- Naples. cess, which was only surpassed by the His sovereignty had been attended progress of his brother-in-law and with considerable advantages to Na. patron. Originally the stable-boy, or ples, as often happens upon the intro. waiter of a cabaret-then a soldier of duction of a new dynasty. Ancient fortune-then a jacobin, so enthu. abuses had been corrected, assassinasiastic, that he requested permission tions were rendered less frequent by to change his name to Marat, in ho- abridging the privilege of sanctuary, nour of that deceased worthy-he the insolencies of the turbulent Laz: had become successively General, zaroni had been checked, and a more Marshal, Grand Duke of Berg, and strict police was established both in King of Naples. Notwithstanding his Naples and Calabria. His governshare in the treacherous expedition ment became rather popular with the against Spain, and the cruel murders nobles, though the common people of which he perpetrated on the patriotic the capital, and the peasants of the citizens of Madrid upon the 4th of country, retained their ancient preMay, 1808, his opportune desertion dilections in favour of Ferdinand and of his brother-in-law's cause had his family. The splendour of Murat's given him such claims on the confe. public shows, and the distribution of derated powers, as, with good faith wine and money on these occasions, and prudence on his part, might have bad not eradicated from the minds of

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