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refuge, which was prolonged, not he would live as a private individual withstanding the attempts of the of distinction, subject, however, to French commandant of Bastia to see the laws of these states. On these cure his person, until he heard the conditions he was offered a passport final resolution of the allied powers to proceed to Trieste, for the purpose on his behalf. This had been solicit- of joining his wife and family. ed at Paris by one of his former aid. More mild and honourable condide-camps, an Anglo-Italian, named tions were surely never proposed to a Macirone, through whom Murat de- man in Murat's situation, and they sired permission to reside in Eng- were such as he would gladly have Jand. The request was most pru. accepted, when he transmitted from dently rejected on the part of Lord Toulon to the hands of Fouché his Castlereagh. The British laws, cus. resolution to submit his person to the toms, and particularly the habits of disposal of the allies. But upon his the people, render our island a most arriving at Corsica, he had unfortuimproper place of residence for per nately found about four hundred of sons whom it is desirable to seclude his followers, chiefly officers discharfrom political intrigues, or from unre- ged from the Neapolitan army, or strained intercourse with the rest of who had fled upon the return of FerEurope. Murat, in the power of the dinand. A desperate man, surroundallies, must always have been regard. ed by desperadoes, he now assumed ed as a prisoner of state, although at once more the regal character, took large, and on his parole; and such a possession of the town of Ajaccio, and prisoner can be only kept with perfect proceeded to levy soldiers with the safety under a government, which pos- avowed purpose of an attempt to resesses strong powers of coercion, in cover Naples. For this purpose, he case the personal freedom permitted to purchased five small vessels, and a him should be found liable to abuse. quantity of arms and ammunition. There was, however, due respect paid Macirone, the bearer of Prince Metto the misfortunes of a king, who had ternich's proposal, found Joachim at once been the ally of Britain and Ajaccio in mímic state, having sentiAustria. The agent of Murat was nels mounted, and his colours displaysupplied by Prince Metternich with a ed before the door of his house. His note of the conditions, upon com- reception of Prince Metternich's arti

pliance with which the Em- cles plainly shows, that his offer to Sept. 1. peror of Austria was willing retire into England was with the se.

to grant an asylum to King cret purpose of waiting a favourable Joachim. I. That he should assume opportunity again to assert his suppothe name of a private person; and sed right to his kingdom. But Austhat which the queen had adopted tria afforded no facilities of this kind : was proposed to him. II. That he There was there neither an opposition, mighi chuse his residence in any to whom he might appeal,--nor a distown, either in Bohemia, Moravia, or affected jacobinical faction, with whom Upper Austria ; or should he prefer a he might intrigue, nor the opportucountry residence in any of these pro- nity of maintaining a correspondence vinces, his wishes would not be oppo- with the malcontents of France and sed. III. King Joachim was to en- Italy. If Murat accepted the terms gage his word to the emperor, that he of the emperor, it could only be with would not quit the Austrian states the certainty that he would not be without his express consent, and that permitted to elude them in letter or in spirit. Life, safety, opulence, all that Neapolitan army, which was comto be enjoyed in the society of his fa- posed of the flower of the nation. He mily, seemed tasteless to this victim then resumed his resolution, and, of ambition, who, having experienced heading the brave men who had forthat chance could raise to a throne merly fought under him, was come to the waiter of a pot-house, was unwil- maintain the honour of the army, and ling to admit that fortune could re- his own rights.” The nation was ex

sume the grandeur she had horted to Ay to arms; the amaranth Sept. 25. conferred. While, by a let- was appointed as the national colour,

ter addressed to Macirone, and the Neapolitan ladies were invited he pretended to accept the conditions to adorn themselves therewith. The

proposed to him, by ano- proclamation would not have been Sept. 28. ther, dated only three days faithful to the style of the great origi

later, he refused them with nal, had it not exhibited a sufficient contempt..“ I will not accept,” were portion of falsehood. The Neapolihis expressions, "the conditions which tans were thereby assured, that the you are charged to offer me. I per- allied powers would not again arm ceive nothing in them but an absolute themselves against King Joachim. The abdication, on the mere condition that emperor, formerly deceived with re. 1 shall be permitted to exist, but in spect to the real political state of eternal captivity, subjected to the ar- Naples, would now, it was averred, bitrary action of the laws under a dese become his ally, and it would be an potic government.” He expressed insult to the good faith of the British himself confident in the attachment cabinet to suppose it would hesitate to of his army.-" I am going to join repair the injury it had done, by taking them—They are all eager to see me up arms against the rightful sovereign again at their head-They, and every of Naples. All this eloquence, and class of my well-beloved subjects, have much more to the same purpose, was preserved to me their affections—I doomed to reach no farther than the have not abdicated—I have a right to deafened and thankless ears of a few recover my crown, if God gives me rude Calabrian fishers. A storm disthe force and means.”

persed the five small vessels in their The truth was, that, forgetting alike passage from Corsica to the coast of the difference of times, circumstances, Naples, and when it subsided, Murat countries, and personal talents, Murat found the felucca in which he was emhad imagined to himself

the possibility barked separated from the others, and of effectuating a second revolution in atthe entrance of the Gulfof St Euphe

Naples, such as Buonaparte mia. The chance of any force he might Sept. 28. had so lately accomplished obtain by waiting to collect his flotilla, in France. For this purpose,

was not to be balanced with the risk he sailed, with his flotilla of five ves- of delay. Joachim, dressed in a rich sels, with the purpose of disembarking uniform, and attended by about thirty at Salerno. In imitation of his grand officers, among whom was General prototype, he had prepared a procla- Franceschetti, disembarked mation, which might almost be regard- at Pizzo. On his entering Oct. 8. ed as a parody on those of Buona- the market-place of the little parte. “ He had determined,” he town, numbers came to gaze on him, said, “to retire from public life, when but none to join him. He collected he learned that the insulting term horses, mounted his retinue, and prohostile banditti, had been applied to ceeded towarıls Monteleone, the ca. pital of Calabria. On his way, he met rushed upon him, and tore off his dea colonel of gens d'armes, by name corations, and he was conveyed before Trentacapelli, whom he commanded General Nanziante, the commander to follow him. The officer eluded the of Calabria, where he underwent a request, afraid, probably, of being de- short examination. tained had he given a direct refusal. - News of the capture of Murat was "My king," he replied, “ shall be he carried to Naples by telegraph, and by whose fag shall be displayed on the the same expeditious means an order castle of Monteleone." Murat per- was conveyed to the commandant of mitted him to proceed on his journey. the military district in which he had On arriving at Pizzo, Trentacapelli landed, to subject him to a trial by found the inhabitants taking arms in martial law. His trial and condemnathe cause of Ferdinand, under com- tion were very summary; for the lot mand of Seignior Alcala, the steward of a captive and defeated pretender is of the Duke del Infantado, to whom seldom long dubious. He was found the village belongs. Colonel Trenta- guilty by the court-martial, unanicapelli put himself at their head, and mously, of having attempted to excite hastened to pursue Murat, who was rebellion and civil war, and the presi. already half way on his journey to dent, General Nanziante, passed senMonteleone. With the fool-hardy in- tence of death accordingly. The jusfatuation that seems to have charac- tice of this doom is vindicated by the terized most of his measures, Joachim general law of nations ; yet, considerconcluded that the strong party which ing that Murat, though now unquese advanced from Pizzo, were following tionably a private man, had been so with the purpose of joining him, and lately numbered among those who determined to wait their arrival. On make peace or war at their pleasure, their approach, the shout of Viva il Re a firm government would have disGioachino! which was raised by his dained, and an humane monarch hesiattendants, was answered by a volley tated, to execute the sentence. It is of musketry. A smart skirmish ensued, said, accordingly, that Ferdinand exin the course of which Murat fired his pressed some scruples at signing the last pistol in the face of Trentacapelli, fatal warrant, until reminded that the but without killing him; and at length, unsettled state of his newly recovered breaking through the enemy, with kingdom did not permit him in about twelve followers, all of whom, dence to spare the forfeit life of his save himself, were wounded, he regain: unhappy rival. The sentence of death ed, at full gallop, the sea-beach, near was executed in the same day. Murat the place where he had disembarked. made it his request that he should be Here all hopes of escape terminated. shot by a party of his own guard, The commander of the felucca from which was of course refused. With which he had aisembarked had taken unnecessary cruelty, the Neapolitan the alarm on hearing the firing, and, officer denied him the use of scissars giving up Murat for lost, bore away to cut off his hair, which he wished to from the coast. Joachim threw him- send to his family. At the last fatal selt into a fishing boat, and endeavour moment he behaved with the courage ed to get it launched. The fisherman to be expected from Le beau sabreur, and his comrades pulled the boat to placed on his breast a picture of his the beach, and surrounded him.. As wife, refused to have bis eyes banda last effort, he produced the passport aged, or to use a seat, received six balls for Trieste. It was too late. Å female through his head, and fell without a

prugroan. His remains were interred in strangers; as a soldier, he led his the chapel belonging to the castle in men in person against the cannon to whose hall the execution had taken which he exposed them, and as a geplace.

neral, he never forsook his army until Thus fell Murat, who, from the it abandoned him. The circumstanmeanest rank of society, had raised ces of his death he had himself fore. himself by military courage alone,- for told, when he weighed in his rashness, he was devoid of talents, -- to the throne and instigated, probably, by the pasof one of the most delightful coun. sions of others as well as his own, the tries in Europe. Had he made active various dangers by which he was surwar during the campaign of 1814, he rounded. “ A king," he said, “ who would have avoided the suspicions of could not keep his sovereignty, had Britain and Austria, or bad he remain- no alternative but a soldier's death; ed at peace in the subsequent year, he and thoughi a prison might be offered would have appeased their resentment, to him as an asylum, a grave would and, in either case, retained his rank be at no great distance." among the kingdoms of Europe. His His fall, in a political point of view, remarkable history isless striking, from was of importance to the tranquillity its being interwoven with that of Buo. of Europe ; for while Murat continued naparte, to which it forms but an epi- to live and reign, his court must have sode. Future times, however, could been the natural asylum of the disafthey forget the massacres of Septem- fected French, and, liable as Joachim ber at Paris, and the 4th of May in was to be acted upon by the insinua. Madrid, might assign to Murat a fair. tions of others, there can be little er rank than liis patron and relative. doubt that, at some future time, hc As a king, he conferred many bene- would have adventured

upon

schemes fits on his subjects, and was generous of ambition for revolutionizing Italy. and hospitable in his intercourse with

CHAP. XII.

Buonaparte attempts to conciliate Foreign Powers.--His Decrees for educa

ting Youth, and abolishing the Slave Trade.-A Plot to carry of the Empress and her Child is detected at Vienna. Versatility of the French Men of Letters.Disputes between Buonaparte and his Ministers.-Proclamations of Louis XVIII.- Activity of the Royalists of Paris.-Buonaparte pays Court to the Federates.Their Procession and Review.

Preparations for War.- Commissioners sent into the Departments.-Disinclination to the War, and Disaffection, prevail generally.--Fouchés Report on these Particulars.-Buonaparte leaves the Tuilleries, and goes to the Palace of Elysee-Bourbon. He Publishes the additional Act to the Constitutions of the Empire.Objected to as not originating with the NationAnd as being only an Appendix to the Imperial Code of Constitutions.It is generally disliked-But subjected to the Votes of the French People.Illusory Nature of the Sanction thus obtained.-Buonaparte's Brothers arrive at Paris.- Ceremony of the Champ de Mai.- Acceptance of the Constitution.Delivery of the Eagles to the Troops.Meeting of the Legislative Chambers. Character of the Chamber of Peers Of Representatives.-- The Chamber of Representatives disputes with Napoleon on Points of Form.-Speech of Buonaparte to the Chambers.--Address of the Peers.-Address of the Representatives.--Buonaparte's Reply to that Address.

While Murat was struggling and ably construed by some of our legis. sinking under his evil fate, Buona- lators, and that they were so is a comparte was actively preparing for the plete proof that Buonaparte underapproaching contest. His first at- stood the temper of our nation. To tempt, as we have already seen, was to suppose, that, during his ten months conciliate the allied powers. To satisfy of retirement, his mind was actively Great Britain, he passed an act abo- employed upon the miseries of the lishing the slave trade, and some re- negroes, or the deplorable state of iggulations concerning national educa- norance to which his own measures, tion, in which he spoke highly of the and the want of early instruction, systems of Bell and Lancaster. But had reduced the youth of France, this approximation of sentiments was would argue but little acquaintance too obviously designed to flatter Bri- with his habits of ambition. tish habits of thinking, to produce believe, on the contrary, that he much good effect. We have seen, would, at his first arrival in France, hat these measures were more favour. make any apparent sacrifices which

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