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In vindicating himself from the char. pose,“ the maintaining entire the conges brought against his government, ditions of peace concluded at Paris on Louis acted like a prudent monarch; the 30th May 1814," and the stipuand, in the language he held towards lations determined upon, and signed his misled or guilty subjects, that of at the Congress of Vienna, in order one willing to blend justice with cle to complete the disposition of that mency. But he has been censured for treaty. Now, by the treaty of Paris, following that path to the throne which as well as by the stipulations of the was opened to him by the sword of his Congress, the influencing cause of all allies, and for claiming the throne as the favourable conditions granted to his hereditary right, and for affirming France, is unequivocally declared to that the doctrine of legitimacy of so- be, “ her being replaced under the vereigns had been just proclaimed as paternal government of her kings;" that of all Europe. It is clear the so- so that the right of Louis to the lution of the first of these scruples crown was in fact the basis of the must rest upon that applied to the se. whole treaty. We shall hereafter see, cond. For if Louis XVIII, had a that the French, always ingenious lawtul right to the throne from which in bottoming their diplomatic pleadhe was expelled, his title to use his ing upon some separate and detachown proper force, or to avail himself ed principle, caught at the decla. of that of his allies for its recovery, ration of the Allied Powers, and of cannot admit of an instant's doubt. Britain in particular, that they did The allied army were the auxiliaries not consider themselves as bound to of Louis, as the English troops had prosecute the war with a view to imformerly been those of his ancestor, posing any particular government; but Henry IV., and a victory gained by it is clear that the reserving to themthem was essentially a victory in the selves the privilege of making no furking's cause, and of which he was, ther exertions in the behalf of the therefore, free to avail himself. The Bourbons, in case of events proving prudence of losing no time in reassu- unpropitious to them, than was conming, or endeavouring to reassume, sistent with what they owed to their the reins of government—the policy of own states, by no means limited or suppressing the machinations of the prevented the allies from doing all in factious by his early reappearance in their power to contribute to the auspihis capital,—the humanity and pater- cious event of the restoration of their nal spirit which induced him as speedi. allies the Bourbons, should circumly as possible to interfere, by his pre- stances render that consummation atsence and his mediation, between the tainable. Of this, we will speak more allied generals and bis erring but suf- fully presently. fering subjects, are all so plain and We will, however, though averse to evident, that it is unnecessary to waste abstract discussions on the origin and words upon them.

nature of government, take this opThat the doctrine of legitimacy had portunity of looking somewhat closejust been recognized by the sanction ly into the nature of this doctrine of of united Europe, was as true as that legitimacy, which has become such a the treaty of Vienna had been sub- dreadful bug-bear to modern politiscribed by the plenipotentiaries of the cians. That the men who had 'aided four greatest powers of Europe, and to murder one king and dethrone adhered to by all the rest. That trea- another, should be vehement against ty had for its express object and pur- the restoration of the latter, arose

out of the nature of things. That the strange actions, opinions, and rethose who had aided Buonaparte to volutions of the last quarter of a cenattain his usurped power, had swin. tury, entitled to wonder at any thing. dled him out of it in his adversity, If there be faith in derivation, this and had assumed the government in alarming word legitimacy comes from to their own hands, should be loth to the Latin, and implies neither divine part with it to the lawful owner, was nor indefeasible right in the party to equally natural ; even granting they whom the quality belongs, but a claim had no reason to have apprehended arising out of birth or descent. Such merited punishment, as one necessary claims have been received at all times, consequence of his restoration. It was and among all nativos, even the most also a matter of course that they barbarous. The poet, indeed, has should exclaim, in their anguish of made a ranting hero exclaim, in a mortification and fear, “ Give us for tone which would fit some modern our king the English Wellington- agitators, the Cossack Platoff—any one but the lawful monarch, who comes with the I am as free as nature first made man, right to punish our rebellion and Ere the base laws of servitude began, treachery. These sentiments, so ge- When wild in woods the noble savage rang nerally and so naturally entertained, not by the people of France at large, But it seems doubtful whether such a but by the demagogues who had sei- state of absolute and unrestrained zed the helm of state when it esca. freedom ever existed, except perhaps ped the palsied grasp of Buonaparte, in the solitary case of Adam, before are precisely the feelings of thieves the creation of Eve; for when our or robbers, who will throw away first parent had a wife and family, their stolen goods for the benefit of they became subjects to his paternal the first stranger that chances to pass authority. It is speedily found expeby, rather than acknowledge them dient to transfer to the eldest son that selves guilty of the theft, by resto. office of head of the family which bering them to the rightful owner ; law comes vacant by the death of the fabeing to such depredators the same ther. It passes to him with its ad. natural object of terror that legiti- vantages of power and property, and, mate right is to rebels and traitors. rightly viewed, with the relative duties But that the gibberish with which of advising, restraining, and protectthese men sought to vindicate their ing the younger branches of the fa. fears, and white-wash their miserable mily. In one respect or other, such cause, should have found tongues and laws of succession subsist in all counpens to re-echo it in any other countries; the feudal constitutions, for try—that there should be a certain certain reasons peculiar to their strucclass of politicians in Britain, who can- ture, gave even greater weight to the not even pronounce this word legiti. principle. It is recognized by all the macy (in itself, surely, not merely an nations of Europe, and, strange as it innocent but a venerable sound,) save may seem, we have heard of no zeawith spitting, hissing, and braying, lous friend of liberty, either in France as at once a term of ridicule and or isritain, who has repudiated the reprobation--that all this should be, succession of his fathers, because, to might indeed be a matter of won the prejudice of younger brothers and der, were those who have witnessed sisters worthier perhaps thap himself,


it has descended upon him by the ty- check, for their own sakes, upon the rannical, absurd, and ridiculous prin- exercise of his power ; and thus proviciple of legitimacy.

sion is made for the correction of all A regulation so useful in ordinary ordinary evils of administration, since, life, is adopted from analogy into na- to use an expressive though vulgar tional government. While states, in- simile, it is better to rectify any ocdeed, are small, and before laws are casional deviation from the regular settled, and when much depends on course by changing the coachman, the personal ability and talents of the than by overturning the earriage. monarch ; the power; which, for aught Such, therefore, is the principle of we know, may be among the abstract- legitimacy, invoked by Louis XVIII., ed rights of man, of chusing each chief and recognized by the allies. But it magistrate after the death of his pre- must not be confounded with the sladecessor, or perhaps more frequently, vish doctrine, that the right thus vestmay be exercised without much incon- ed is by divineorigin indefeasible. The venience. But as states become exheir-at-law in private kife may dissitended, and their constitutions cir- pate by his folly, or forfeit by his cumscribed and bounded by laws, crimes, the patrimony which the law which leave less scope and less neces- conveys to him; and the legitimate sity for the exeroise of the sovereign's monarch may most unquestionably, magisterial functions, men are glad to by departing from the principles of exchange the licentious privilege of a the constitution under which he is Tartarian couroultai, or a Polish diet, called to reign, forfeit, for himfor the principle of legitimacy, be- self and for his heirs if the legiscause the chance of a hereditary suc- lature shall judge it proper, that cessor proving adequate to the du- crown which the principle we have ties of his situation, is, at least, equal recognized bestowed on him as his to that of a popular election lighting birth-right. This is an extreme case, upon a worthy candidate ; and be provided, not in virtue of the consticause, in the former case, the nation tution, which recognizes no possible is spared the convulsions occasioned delinquency in the sovereign, but beby previous competition and solicita- cause the constitution has been attion, and succeeding heart-burnings, tacked and infringed upon by the factions, civil war, and ruin, uniformly monarch, and therefore can no longer found to attend the latter.

be permitted to afford him shelter. The doctrine of legitimacy is pe- The crimes by which this high penal. culiarly valuable in a limited mo- ty is justly incurred, must therefore narchy, because it affords a degree of be of an extraordinary nature, and stability otherwise unattainable. The beyond the reach of those correctives principle of hereditary monarchy, join- for which the constitution provides, ed to that which declares that the king by the punishment of ministers and can do no wrong, provides for the per- counsellors. The constitutional buckmanence of the executive government, ler of impeccability covers the moand represses that ambition which narch (personally) for all blamewor. would animate so many bosoms, were thy use of his power, providing it is there a prospect of the supreme sway exercised within the limits of the conbecoming vacant, or subject to elec stitution; it is when he stirs beyond tion trom time to time. The king's it, and not sooner, that it becomes no ministers, on the other hand, being defence for the bosom of a tyrant. responsible for his actions, remain a A King of Britain, for example, may wage a rash war, or make a disgrace. forfeiture of his legitimate rights, he ful peace, in the lawful, though inju- had, during these few months, laid a dicious and blame-worthy, exercise of strong claim to the love, veneration, the power vested in him by the con- and gratitude of his subjects. He had stitution. His advisers, not he himi- fallen a sacrifice, in some degree, to self, shall be called, in such a case, to the humoursand rashness of the princes their responsibility. But if, like James of his family—still more to causeless II., he infringes upon, or endeavours jealousies and unproved doubts, the to destroy the constitution, it is then water-colours which insurrection nethat resistance becomes lawful and

ver lacks to paint her cause with ; but, honourable, and the king is justly above all, to the fickleness of the held to have forfeited the right which French people, who became tired of his descended to him from his forefa- simple, orderly, and peaceful governthers.

ment, and to the dissatisfaction of a The principles of hereditary mo- licentious and licensed soldierý, and narchy, of the inviolability of the per- of moody banditti, panting for a time son of the king, and of the responsi- of pell-mell havoc and confusion. The bility of ministers, were recognized by forcible expulsion of Louis XVIII, the constitutional charter of France. arising from such motives, could not Louis XVIII. was, therefore, during break the solemn compact entered inthe year previous to Buonaparte's re- to by France with all Europe, when turn, the lawful sovereign of France, she received her legitimate monarch and it remains to be shown by what from the hand of her clement conact of treason to the constitution he querors, and with him, and for his had forfeited his right of legitimacy. sake, such conditions of peace as she If the reader will turn back to our was in no condition to demand, and sixth chapter, (and we are not con- could never have otherwise obtained. scious of having spared the conduct of His misfortune, as it arose from no the Bourbons,) he will probably be of fault of his own, could infer no foropinion with us, that the errors of his feiture of his vested right. Europe, che government were not only fewer than virtual guarantee of the treaty of Pamight have been expected in circum- ris, had also a title, leading back the stances so new and difficult, but were lawful king in her armed and victoof such a nature as an honest, well- rious hand, to require of France his meaning, and upright opposition would re-instatement in his rights; and the soon have checked; he will find that termination which she thus offered to not one of them could be person the war was as just and equitable, as ally attributed to Louis XVIII., and its conduct during this brief campaign that, far from having incurred the bad been honourable and successful.


Military Movements.-Flight of the French to their own Frontiers.-Retreat

of Grouchy's Division. -- Battle at Namur.-Grouchy escapes to Laon.-- Advance of the Allies.- Capture of Avesnes by the Prussians-Their Severity to the French.-Moderation of the British--Who take Cambray and Peronne.

- French Commissioners come to treat of Peace.- Armistice refused.-Con. ference at Haguenau.— Fouché secretly embraces the Interest of the Bourbons. -Advance of the Allied Armies.-Wrede crosses the Rhine at Manheim, and takes Chalons.- The Prince Royal of Wirtemberg enters France from Philipsberg-Defeats General Rapp, and invests Strasbourg. The Arch-Duke Ferdinand defeats Lecourbe, and advances on Langres.-General Frimont drives the French from the Valley of the Arve.---Bubna takes the Tete-de-Pont at Arly. The Grand Army, under the Sovereigns, enters France without Op. position. Situation of the French Provisional Government. They have no Ine Auence either with the Army or the People-Yet retain their Animosity to the Bourbons.- Malleville's Address in Favour of the Bourbons.-Reflections on the Course he recommended.-Gareau denounces Malleville.- fortifications of Paris.The Army's Declaration against the Bourbons. Propositions of Bory St Vincent in the Chamber of Representatives.-The Allied Armies come before Paris. Declaration of ihe French Army. Measures of Fouché and the moderate Party.-Operations of the Armies.-Skirmish at Versailles, Paris Surrenders. The Conditions of Capitulation.

While the French factions debated, lington and Blucher to take the full the victorious generals of the allies advantage of the victory of Waterloo, acted; and so successfully, that the and to prostrate their antagonists while imperfect means left for the defence they yet staggered under that terrible of France against her invaders, were blow. rendered useless by the rapidity of The retreat of the disorderly crowd their movements. Well taught by which was once called the grand experience, they no longer sate down French army, had taken instinctively to wonder at their own success, as if the route to their own frontiers. (were it lawful to alter the scriptural Closely followed, and harassed at every phrase) “ sufficient for the day had step by the Prussians, they flocked been the glory thereof." All mea- along the main road from Charleroi sures were hastily adopted by Wel like a drove of out-wearied, and yet

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