Slike strani

had formerly been a catholic church. in this country with public feeling of The congregation was insulted, the almost every kind, it was observed worship interrupied, and the most that the desire of fixing some blame shameful disorders committed. upon the new government of France

The Count de la Garde called out heated the zeal of many, although it the troops, and hastened to the spot would be unfair to doubt that they to restore good order. This excellent were also animated by sincere zeal for officer was personally obnoxious to the the professors of the reformed faith. rabble, from the exertions he had The meetings, therefore, were numemade on former occasions to protect rously attended while they confined the Huguenots, and particularly by themselves to votes of censure and his activity in arresting and securing remonstrance, but when a subscripTrestaillon, who had been the leader tion was opened for behalf of the suf, of the catholics in the former atro. erers, it filled slowly: the amount, we cities. While endeavouring to per- believe, vas trifling, and the alarm for suade the mob to disperse, he struck the protestant cause was observed to with the flat of his sword a fellow who subside into indifference. was particularly insolent; the ruffian There was, indeed, great injustice fired a pistol. by which La Garde re- in throwing upon Louis XVII. and ceived a wound which had nearly his ministers, evils which arose from proved mortal This desperate at the distracted state of the country. tempt to assassinate the king's officer, His power during the first period of while acting in protection of the pub. his restoration was so limited by cirlic tranquillity, at length called forth cumstances, that he had hardly the the energetic exertions of the royal power of commanding in his own pagovernment, disgraced by the conduct lace, much less that of settling the afof banditti, who affected to be guided fairs of a distant and distracted proby a fanatical zeal in the cause of the vince. So soon as Louis had the king and catholic church. Troops means of doing so, his conduct plainly were quartered at Nismes in numbers shewed, that, though a sincere casufficient to enforce the preservation of tholic, he respected liberty of con

the public peace, and an or. science, and was sensible of the adNov. 21. dinance of the king directed vantages of toleration.

proceedings to be commen- While the fanaticism of the royalced against the promoters and abet- ists agitated the south of France, with tors of these tumults, as well as against La Vendee, Limosin, and Poitou, the assassins of General de la Garde. the eastern frontiers, including Al. The tranquillity of the disturbed dis. sace, Lorraine, the three bishopricks, tricts was thus gradually restored. Ardennes, Champagne, Burgundy,

The report of these transactions Franche Compté, and Dauphiné, premade a strong impression on the pub. sented a danger of another description. lic mind in Great Britain, and meet. A moral opposition to the royal goings were called in different parts of veroment was almost universal in these the kingdom to express the sympathy provinces. In others, the parties were of the British people with the sufferings more equally balanced; but, in geneof those of their persuasion in France, ral, to use the words of the Abbé de and to request the interference of go- Salgues, “never since the cruel epoch vernment with the restored King of of 1793, did the provinces of France France for protection of the protesto present a more revolutionary aspect; ants. As political party mingles itself never did the multitude, the eternal sport of factions, the sanguinary in- raged the disaffected to believe the strument of all the chiefs of revolt list of attainted persons then puband anarchy, display a more eager lished to have been drawn up merely disposition to insurrection and vio. for the purpose of striking terror; but lence. Never was the poison of ca- without the government meaning, or, lumny infused with greater care, or to speak more properly, daring, to the fire of discord fed with more zeal bring any of the accused persons and perseverance."

to arrest and trial. Suidenly, as The central provinces were restrain, if to contradict such rumours, the ed by their neighbourhood to the seat public learned that Labedoyere, reof government, and by the presence markable for having been the first of the allied troops. But the capital to adopt the cause of Buonaparte afwas in great agitation, chiefly in conse- ter his landing, and the last to defend quence of the great number of officers him after his abdication, had been and soldiers belonging to the army of seized in Paris, and was to be brought the Loire, who, in spite of all orders to to trial. This enthusiastic Seid, so the contrary, repaired thither in num- called because his fanatical attachbers, and took every opportunity of ment to Buonaparte bore a resemquarrelling with and insulting the blance to that of the character so naroyalists, the king's body guard, and med to the false prophet in Voltaire's the officers of the allied armies. tragedy of Mahomet, had bee for

In the midst of this tumult, it seem- some time with Excelmans' division ed at one time as if the disaffected of the army of the Loire, and up. were about to make some strange and on its hoisting the white flag, had desperate effort for a general explo- returned to Paris, in order, as was sion. In the gardens of the Tuille suspected, to communicate with those ries, and amid crowds of royalists of attached to his party on the means the inferior order, who assembled each of accomplishing an insurrection, or, night to dance under the king's win- as he himself alleged to find the means dows, cries of Vive l'Empereur were of transporting himself to America. No frequently heard ; and, notwithstand- proof of new machinations, however, ing all the martial preparation of the was offered on his trial before the allies, there were indications of a ten- council of war, which turned entirely dency to tumult among the inhabitants on the part he had played at Grenoof the suburbs. In addition to the ble in the preceding month of March, English and Prussian troops, which when he showed the first example of already occupied the strong posts of open defection from the royal cause. Paris, thirty thousand Russians, the This charge would admit neither of selected force of the emperor's fine defence or palliation, and the accu. army, entered the city, and, after de. sed hardly attempted either. He alfiling in long procession before the lowed that he might possibly have allied sovereigns, took


their quar- been misled by illusions, by old recolters in Paris and its vicinity. The lections, by false ideas of honour, and King of France also employed some that his notions of patriotism might measures of intimidation.

have been chimerical. But when he It had long appeared to the specta. attempted to ground an exculpation tors of this extraordinary scene, as if on the conduct of Louis XVIII.

and the slowness of Fouché's police to his ministry before the arrival of Buotake any steps in consequence of the naparte, the court refused to permit proclamation of the 24th July, encou. him to enter into matter foreign to

tied gare


of La di at appea theret induce with t edict;

his exculpation. The facts charged those who engage in them may have
being clearly established by proof, been misled; that the defection of La-
General Labedoyere received sen- bedoyere was contrary to the oath he
tence of death accordingly. It was had taken ; and that if the doctrine
executed, notwithstanding the inter- of allegiance had become vague and
cession of his wife, who threw her. doubtful in France, it was of the laet
self at the king's feet; and notwith consequence that it should be con-
standing also of a sort of extenuating firmed by a solemn example. So
apology, which appeared in the Inde- soon, therefore, as the sentence of
pendent, a paper conducted under the Labedoyere was confirmed by the
auspices of Fouché himself. This apo- Court of Revision, to whom he ap-
logy ingeniously uiged in the crimi- pealed, it was carried into execution,
nal's behalf, that “ still young, he had The criminal was con-
never served except under the colours ducted in a carriage to August 19.
of Napoleon. He had known Louis the plain of Grenelles,
XVIII. only ten months. The first and there shot by a detachment of
sovereign, whose abdication appear. gens d'armes. He died with great
ed to him only a sacrifice dictated firmness; and although, while it is a
by necessity, re-appeared suddenly crime for a soldier to betray his trust,
before him. A habit contracted du- or a subject to rebel against his sove.
ring fifteen years of considering the reign, his execution must be consider-
emperor, whom all the monarchs of ed as amply deserved; yet his youth,
Europe had acknowledged, as his le- high courage, enthusiastic disposition,
gitimate chief, resumed all its force. and handsome person, together with
It awakened affections which had his falling the first victim of a crime
been but ill extinguished. The il which had included so m:iny thousand
Jusion of the military glory—of the accomplices, attracted much compas-
former power of the prince, render. sion.
ed in the eyes of some of his parti- Some weeks afterwards, two subor.
sans greater by his misfortunes and dinate agents, called Cæsar and Con-
bis exile, acted on an ardent and stantine Fouchers, brethren, who had
elevated imagination, which easily played a distinguished part as mar-
fancies the dictates of duty to be shals de camp and commanders of fe.
obeyed, even at the very moment derates, in the neighbourhood of Bour.
in which the most sacred of duties deaux, were also tried and condemn.
are trampled on. It must be confess- ed. They were of the true jacobin
ed, it was added, that the multiplied breed, as appeared from their bearing
vicissitudes of our revolutions, and testimony at their trial against titles
frequent changes of government have of nobility and distinctions of rank,
shaken, and have sometimes had the and are said amply to have deserved
effect, during these 25 years, of ren-

the distinction which selected them
dering doubtful in France the no. as objects of punishment, by the seve-
tions of morality on the legitimacy rities they had exercised
of princes and the fidelity of sub- on the royalists of Bour- Sept, 28.

deaux. They refused (as But while these facts are admitted, became their sect) all consolation of. it ought to be remembered that the fered them from religion, and walked welfare of society depends upon re- arm in arm to the place of execution, pressing crimes against ebe state, with. with the air of serenity and firmness. out regarding the motives by which They would not allow bandages to be

tied over their eyes, and one of them the power of proteeting those with gave the signal for the execution. whom he had acted. The king, by

These examples, but especially that the advice of Talleyrand, had lost no of Labedoyere, struck terror into the time in summoning a meeting of the disaffected, and restored to Paris the Chamber of Representatives, and the appearance of tranquillity. Here, temper of the members deputed to therefore, Fouché's policy would have serve in that body, occasioned a great induced him to halt and temporize change in the cabinet of the Tuilwith the other persons included in the leries. edict; but he was on the eve of losing


The Royalists attack the Ministry,_and prevail.-- The Chamber of Deputies is assembled Its Character.-Talleyrand and Fouché resign-Their alleged Reasons.-A new Ministry is appointed. Arrest of Ney.The Court-Martial declares itself incompetent to try him.-He tried by the Chamber of Peers, and found Guilty of High Treason. Attempts to save himHis Exe. cution.-Severities inflicted on France by the Allied Armies.-

Dispersion of the National Museum.-Treaty of Peace-Its Conditions.--Speech of the King on apening the Sittings of the Chamber of Deputies.

The parties of France, so far as they the punishment of the principal culwere avowed and ostensible, were now prits, and that the doctrine of the again merged into two. The first was oblivion of the past, which had been that of the royalists, to whom late preached up for five and twenty years, events had given considerable addi- had been for that long space of time tions--the second that of the consti- the regular signal for fresh miseries ; tutionalists, with whom must now be that, pronounced after the first disnumbered the late imperialists and re- orders of the revolution, this for. publicans, neither of which factions bearance had led to the murders at were longer in condition to exist as a se- Avignon, from thence to the mas. parate party. The views and politics sacres of September, and from thence of these parties were decidedly oppo. to the death of the king. “ The sed to each other.

revolution,” they said, “ would neThe royalists clamorously demand. ver have been so fruitful in crimes, ed the punishment of those who had had it not been also fruitful in pardon been most guilty in the late rebellion, and amnesty." The proclamation of They insisted that the infliction of the 24th of July was, in the eyes of just and legal punishment upon a few these zealous royalists, an incomplete Jeaders would at once intimidate the list of a very few principal criminals, remains of the disaffected, now most of whom had been permitted to loudly insolent, and put a stop to the elude, by Alight, the punishment due private and unauthorized acts of re. to their crimes, while it was proposed venge which were practised in the as the boundary of public vengeance, south. They affirmed, that a real and and thus formed a screen for others not effectual amnesty must be preceded by less guilty than those whose names were


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