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was declared inviolable. All torture which, though far exceeding in length and mutilation was abolished. No any of the Duke of Wellington's, only sentence of death was to be exccuted, narrated a difficult march and a bloodexcept by the written warrant of the less triumph. But reason will forgive British governor, founded on a report the self-complacence of the governor of the case. Subject to these condi- of Ceylon. He bad achieved a contions, the administration of civil and quest, preceding attempts at which criminal justice and police over the had only left dreadful lessons of cau. Candian inhabitants is to be exer- tion and forbearance. And what was cised, according to established forms, still more material, he had delivered and by the ordinary authorities; sa- a fine country, and a well-disposed ving always the inherent right of go- people, from the yoke of an inhuman vertiment to redress grievances and tyrant, --secured to them the most imreform abuses in all instances whai- portant personal immunities, and plaever, particular or general, where ced them under the government of such interposition shall become ne. an enlightened people,-ensured the cessary.

peacetui possession of the colony, The account of this important suc- which musi have been precarious cess reached Britain at a time when the while the internal provinces were go. public ear, accustomed to thrill at the verned by a native prince, and added recital of the dreadful and doubtful bat. the whole of a fair and fruitful island tles on the continent of Europe, listen- to the dominions of the British sovewith some indifference to a dispatch, reign.

3

CHAP. XXI.

America.- Unsuccessful Attack on New Orleans.-Capture of Fort Mobile.-

Capture of the President Frigate.-Ratification of the Treaty of Peace. Discussion in Parliament on the Address of Thanks to the Prince Regent for this Treaty.-Commercial Treaty entered into.- Reflections.

this

The treaty of peace between Great to the north of the Mississippi, and Britain and America, which was sign- between New Orleans and the sea, ed by the commissioners for both na. there is a lake called Lac Borgne, tions at Ghent, in December 1814, which communicates with the sea by could not immediately put a period to a considerable outlet, or river ; and the hostilities which were carrying on at the upper end, a river runs into it, in America.

which is navigable by boats to within In the end of the year 1814, prepa- six or eight miles of New Orleans. rations had been made for an attack This mode of access was, accordingly, upon the town of New Orleans, situa. fixed upon by the British commanders. ted upon the river Mississippi. For The Americans, aware of this inten

purpose, a considerable army was tion, had stationed a formidable flow collected, under the command of Ma- tilla, consisting of five gun-vessels of jor-general Keane, which was to be the largest dimensions, upon Lac conveyed to the point of disembarka. Borgne ; and, as the principal means tion by the squadron under the com. of transporting our troops to the point mand of Admiral Sir Alexander Coch- of disembarkation were open boats, it rane. On the other hand, the Ame. was impossible to proceed till these ricans had made provision for a vigo- vessels were captured or destroyed. rous defence of that place. After they for this purpose, the boats of the had taken possession of Pensacola, in squadron, under the command of CapNovember, their general, Jackson, had tain Lockyer, were sent into Lac received orders to proceed from thence Borgne on the 12th of December ; to New Orleans with all his dispo. and, after rowing for thirty-six hours, sable force; and it appears that they Captain Lockyer, on the morning of had collected not less than 30,000 the 14th, discovered the flotilla premen for the defence of that place. pared for his reception. As soon as

New Orleans is situated upon the he came within gun-shot of the eneleft bank of the Mississippi, and a con. my, he issued his orders that the boats siderable way up the river. It can, should grapple; and they continued however, be approached by water, to to pull up to the enemy against a within a very short distance. A little strong current and under a destructive

VOL. VIII. PART I.

Z

ed or

fire. At last, the boat which carried main body of the British was moved Captain Lockyer closed with the com- up to oppose it. The conflict which modore of the flotilla. A desperate now ensued was of a very singular deconflict of several minutes took place, scription, and cannot be better dein which the greater part of both the scribed than in the words of General officers and men of this boat were kill Keane's dispatch. “On the approach

wounded ; but some of the other of the 85th regiment to the point of boats coming up, they succeeded in attack, the enemy, favoured by the carrying the vessel, and immediately darkness of the night, concealed themturned her guns upon the remaining selves under a high fence which sepa. four. In the meantime, the remaining rated the fields, and, calling to the boats had been employed with equal men as friends, under pretence of begallantry ; and in a very short time ing part of our own force, offered to the whole of the enemy's vessels were assist them in getting over, which was taken. This brilliant exploit cost us no sooner accomplished, than the 85th seventeen men killed, and seventy-se

found itself in the midst of very supe. ven wounded ; Captain Lockyer him. rior numbers, who, discovering them. self having received a severe wound in selves, called on the regiment immedi. boarding the commodore of the ene- ately to surrender. The answer was an my's flotilla.

instantaneous attack; a more extraor. The passage

for the disembarkation dinary conflict has, perhaps, never ocof our troops being now open, the curred, absolutely hand to hand, both whole army, consisting of about 2400 officers and men. It terminated in the men, were put on board the gun-ves- repulse of the enemy, with the capsels and boats, and, on the 22d, they ture of thirty prisoners. A similar proceeded across Lac Borgne. Seve- finesse was attempted with the 95th ral of the gun-vessels grounded; but regiment, which met the same treatthe advance, in the boats, pushed on, ment.” The enemy made repeated atand, having rowed up the river, which tacks, which were always repulsed, runs into the lake, at its head, they till about midnight, when he detereffected a landing on the 23d, under mined to make a final effort, and, the command of Col. Thornton, about forming his whole force into line, ad. six miles from New Orleans. In this vanced again to the onset. He at situation, about an hour after sunset, first drove in the advanced posts ; but when the troops, much exhausted by Colonel Thornton, rallying the troops, their previous exertions, were asleep and moving forward to charge, drove in their bivouac, a heavy fire was open. the enemy back, who did not dare ed upon them by some vessels which again to advance. The American had dropped down the Mississippi from troops were commanded by General New Orleans, and anchored opposite Jackson, and amounted to five thouto their position. By a prompt and sand men, a great number of whom judicious movement, the men were in- were left on the field. stantly placed out of the reach of this After this affair, the second divifire ; but soon afterwards a vigorous sion of the army was brought up, and attack was made on the advanced pic- the whole took up a position. On quets by a body of troops from the the 25th, Major-General Sir E. Pa

This assault was firmly resist. kenham and Major-General Gibbs ared, and the enemy kept in check for a rived, and the former took the comconsiderable time ; but the attack be- mand of the army. From this time ing renewed with a large force, the to the 8th of January, the army was occupied in preparing for a general ing: Accordingly, as soon as it was attack on the enemy's lines before dark, Colonel Thornton's corps proNew Orleans.

town.

ceeded in their expedition across the The position of our army was on a river. Unlooked-for difficulties, how. piece of fat ground, with the Missis- ever, increased by the falling of the sippi on the left, and a thick wood on river, occasioned considerable delay ; the right. The ground was open to and it was not till five o'clock in the the front, from which the enemy's morning that these troops got over. line was distinctly seen. It consisted By that time, Colonel Thornton perof an entrenchment of about a thou- ceived, by the fashes of the guns, that sand yards of front, which extended, the attack on the enemy's position was on the right, to the river, and, on the begun ; and he hastened forward, with left, to a thick and impassable wood. the utmost expedition, to the attack This line was strengthened by fank of the flanking battery, which, he works, and had a canal of about four judged too truly, was by that time feet deep along the front. On the destructively employed against our right, or opposite bank of the Missis- troops. After overcoming various obsipi, which is here about eight hun. stacles, he at last reached the battery, dred yards broad, the Americans had which he succeeded in carrying in a a battery of twelve guns, which enfi- most gallant manner. The enemy fled laded the whole front of their position in confusion, leaving in his hands six. on the left bank.

teen pieces of cannon, and the colours The dispositions made by the Bri- of the New Orleans regiment of mitish commander for the attack appear to litia. have been very judicious. In order to In the mean time, the main body, prevent our troops, when coming up under the command of Major-General to the attack of the enemy's line, from Gibbs, had moved up to the attack of being exposed to the fire of the bat. the enemy's position. The obstructery on the opposite side of the ri- tion in the movement of Colonel ver, it was judged necessary that this Thornton's corps had occasioned some battery should be carried. The stream, delay in proceeding to the general atby which our boats had come from tack, which did not take place till the Lac Borgne to the place of disem. advancing columns were discernible barkation, communicated with the Mis- from the enemy's line at more than sissippi by a narrow canal. This canal two hundred yards distance, when a was, with considerable labour, clear. destructive fire was instantly opened, ed out and widened, by which means not only from all parts of the enemy's troops could be sent over to the op- line, but from the battery on the opposite bank of the Mississippi. These posite side of the river. The gallant preparations being made, it was re. Pakenham, who, during his short but solved, that, in the night previous to brilliant career, was always foremost the general attack, which was to be in the path of glory and of danger, made at break of day, a body of troops, gallopped forward to the front, to ani. under Colonel Thornton, was to be sent mate his men by his presence. He across the river, and to move along the had reached the crest of the glacis, right bank till it reached the Ameri- and was in the act of cheering his can battery which it was to carry. troops, with his hat off, when he re This, it was expected, would be done ceived two balls, one in the knce, and before the main body should reach the another in his body. He fell into the front of the American line in the morn. arms of Major M.Dougal, his aid-de. upon

camp, and almost instantly expired. affair, that the Hon. Lieut.-Colonel Nearly at the same moment, General Mullins was found guilty of neglect of Gibbs and General Keane were both duty upon the storm, and cashiered borne off wounded. These disastrous by the sentence of a court-martial. circumstances, the fall of many other The last operation of this armament commanding officers, and the mate- was the taking of Fort Mobile, on rials for crossing the ditch not having the coast of Louisiana. On the fort been brought forward, (the men being being closely invested, the American wounded who were carrying them,) commander capitulated on the 11th of were sufficient to dishearten the troops; February, with his garrison, consistand their despondency was increased ing of 366 men. by perceiving that it was impossible Before the cessation of hostilities, to make any impression on the ene. the British had once more an opportumy's works, every man who reached nity of measuring their strength with the ditch being either drowned, or the Americans on the ocean. On the obliged to surrender. In this situa. 15th January, a British squadron, tion, the column began to waver, and which had been stationed off the coast was soon obliged to fall back in great of New York, to watch the motions confusion the reserve, which was of the American frigate the President, coming up, under General Lambert. commanded by Commodore Decatur,

General Lambert, on whom the and some other vessels, fell in with the command now devolved, after restoring President when attempting to get to order among the troops, and placing sea. After a long chace, the Endy. them in position, found, upon careful mion frigate came up with the Presi. consideration, that it would be impro- dent, and a sanguinary action comper to hazard a renewal of the attack. menced, which was maintained for two T'he army, therefore, retreated to the hours and a half, when, in consequence entrance of Lac Borgne, where they of the Endymion being crippled in remained for some days, until the the rigging, the enemy got out of 27th January, when the whole were her reach. On another vessel of the re-embarked. During the retreat, the British squadron, however, coming British troops were not molested in up, the President struck. The loss any degree by the enemy, and all the was considerable on both sides ; but artillery, ammunition, and stores, were greatest on the side of the Ameri. brought away, except six guns which cans. it was impossible to remove, from the The treaty of peace between Great position in which they had been pla- Britain and the United States, which ced. The Americans treated the pri- had been signed by the Commissioners soners and wounded who fell into at Ghent, on 24th December 1814, their hands, with much kindness and was ratified by the American governhumanity.

In this action we sus- ment, on 17th February 1815; and, tained a heavy loss. Besides Sir Ed. on the 16th of March, it was laid beward Pakenham, and General Gibbs, fore Parliament. The substance of who died of his wounds the day after this treaty has been given in our last the action, our loss, in killed, wound. volume. * In the month of March, ed, and prisoners, amounted to about motions were made in both Houses of 2000 men. It was an unusual and un- Parliament for addresses of thanks to pleasant circumstance of this unhappy the Prince Regent for this treaty,

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