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XVII j 16, j 17, i 16, i 15—Continued.

Reticularia sp.

Athyris? n. sp.
XVII j, k 16:

Zaphrentis sp.
Favosites sp.
Stropheodonta sp.
Atrypa reticularis (Linnaeus).
Schizophoria striatula (Schlotheim).

Gypidula sp.
XVII h 19, i 19:

Crinoid stems.
Productella sp.
Atrypa reticularis (Linnaeus).
Reticularia cf. R. laevis (Hall).
Reticularia cf. R. subundifera (Meek and Worthen).
Nucleospira sp.

Fish bone.
XVII i 14, i 13:

Cyathophyllum sp.
Atrypa reticularis (Linnaeus).
Camarotoechia contracta Hall?
Stropheodonta arcuata Hall.
Reticularia sp.
Nucleospira n. sp.

Proetus sp.
XVII h, i, 18, 19:

Favosites cf. F. basaltica Goldfuss.
Favosites cf. F. canadensis (Billings).
Alveolites sp.
Schizophoria striatula (Schlotheim).
Chonetes sp.
Atrypa reticularis (Linnaeus).
Martinia cf. M. maia (Billings).
Nucleospira sp.

Proetus sp.
XIX h 19 :

Zaphrentis sp.
Atrypa reticularis (Linnaeus).
Stropheodonta sp.
Camarotoechia sp.
Meristella? sp.
Meristella cf. M. laevis (Vanuxem)
Pugnax pugnus (Martin) var.

Gypidula sp.
XIX i 20:

Productella cf. P. spinulicosta Hall.
Stropheodonta sp. Indentical with Stropheodonta sp. in XIX h 19.
Atrypa reticularis (Linnaeus).
Schizophoria striatula (Schlotheim).
Gypidula sp.

XIX p 10:

Cyathophyllum? sp.
Atrypa reticularis (Linnaeus).
Leptaena rhomboidalis (Wilckens).

Spirifer sp.
XIX q 23:

Fenestella sp.
Atrypa reticularis (Linnaeus).
Atrypa cf. A. flabellata Goldfuss.
Stropheodonta cf. S. arcuata Hall.

Conocardium cf. C. cuneus Conrad.
XIX i, j, h, 23, 22:

Atrypa reticularis (Linnaeus).
Stropheodonta sp.
Schizophoria striatula (Schlotheim).

Cryphaeus? sp.
XIX d 22:

Cyathophyllum cf. C. quadrigeminum Goldfuss.
Crinoid stems.
Atrypa reticularis (Linnaeus).
Camarotoechia sp.
Gypidula sp.
Conocardium cf, C. cuneus Conrad.

Platychisma ? sp.
The other three Devonian collections by Cairnes are:

XVII j 15:

Productella ? sp.
Atrypa n. sp.?
Martinia cf. M. maia Billings.
Stropheodonta sp.

Proetus cf. P. macrocephalus Hall.
XVII p 4, 5:

Cyathophyllum cf. C. quadrigeminum Goldfuss.

Favosites sp.
XVII p 5:

Favosites sp.
Camarotoechia sp.

Hercinella ? sp. The localities and character of the Middle Devonian collections made by Harrington from the undifferentiated limestone of the boundary are as follows; the faunal determinations were made by Edwin Kirk:

736. 6.75 miles north and 3.5 miles east from intersection of one hundred and forty-first meridian and sixty-fifth parallel :

Crinoid columns.
Stropheodonta sp.
Camarotoecbia sp.
Atrypa reticularis.
Conocardium sp.
62744-30 -5

738. Hard Luck Creek, 5.93 miles north and 0.33 mile west from intersection of one hundred and forty-first meridian and sixty-fifth parallel :

Ferestella sp.
Eatonia ? sp.
Pugnax sp.
Atrypa reticularis.

Martinia cf. M. maia. 739. 6.75 miles north and 0.93 mile east from intersection of one hundred and forty-first meridian and sixty-fifth parallel :

Cyathophyilum sp.
Leptaena rhomboidalis.

Atrypa reticularis. 740. Hard Luck Creek, 5.93 miles north and 0.47 mile west from intersection of one hundred and forty-first meridian and sixty-fifth parallel :

Fenestella sp. 741. Hard Luck Creek, 5.93 miles north and 0.33 mile west from intersection of one hundred and forty-first meridian and sixty-fifth parallel :

Chonetes sp. 742. 0.55 mile north and 2.1 miles west from intersection of one hundred and forty-first meridian and sixty-fifth parallel :

Stropheodonta sp. The locality of the collection from the Middle Devonian limestone of the Tatonduk River made by the writer and the determination of its contained fossils by Edwin Kirk, of the United States National Museum, are given below:

25AM+161 (2063). North bank of Tatonduk River, 0.38 mile N. 414° W. of international boundary topographic station 104:

Alveolites sp.
Striatopora sp.
Acervularia cf. A. arctica (Meek).
Heliophyllum sp.
Favosites cf. F. polymorpha Goldfuss.
Gypidula comis Owen.
Atrypa reticularis (Linnaeus).
Atrypą near A. hystrix Hall.
Chonetes cf. C. pusilla Hall.

Camarotoechia sp. Finally, it should be remembered that this wealth of paleontologic material comes mainly from a narrow zone along the international boundary, from the Yukon River northward to the Nation River, a distance of about 60 miles. Numerous stratigraphic horizons in the Paleozoie have already been recognized, and others are doubtless represented. When a topographic map shall have been made of the 600 square miles lying in the triangle between the boundary and the Yukon and Nation Rivers, the geologist will have before him probably the most interesting piece of geologic mapping of Paleozoic rocks that exists in Alaska. Cambrian, Ordovician, Silurian, Devonian, and Carboniferous rocks are all represented, and the recognition and mapping of all the formations in these five systems

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should lead to a vast amount of information regarding the history of the Paleozoic era in the Yukon Valley.

As no formational and little group mapping has been done along the boundary, not a great deal can be said as yet regarding the correlation of the rocks there with Paleozoic groups and formations elsewhere in Alaska. Paleontologically, however, certain correlations stand out strikingly, of which the Silurian, Devonian, and Mississippian faunas afford the best examples. One of the prominent horizon markers of central and northern Alaska is the great middle Silurian limestone developed in the White Mountains north of Fairbanks and from Kotzebue Sound eastward for 600 or 700 miles to the Chandalar River. To judge from the middle Silurian fossils collected by Cairnes and from the fact that Kindle 38 also collected middle Silurian fossils from the dolomite just above the lower ramparts of the Porcupine River, it would seem that this middle Silurian sequence is probably continuous with beds at the same horizon in northern Alaska. Similarly, the upper Silurian fossils collected along the boundary by Cairnes suggest the presence there of the upper Silurian(?) formation mapped by Smith and Mertie 34 in northern Alaska, correlative with a similar formation in central Alaska that overlies the middle Silurian limestone of the White Mountains.

The Middle Devonian fauna along the boundary may also be correlated with a similar fauna widely known in interior and northern Alaska. The type locality for this fauna in northern Alaska is on the Porcupine River at the mouth of the Salmontrout River in a limestone called by Kindle 35 the Salmontrout limestone. No fossils that were distinctly Upper or Lower Devonian were collected by Cairnes along the boundary. The absence of Lower Devonian fossils is to be expected, as such fossils have not yet been found anywhere in Alaska. But an Upper Devonian fauna, characterized principally by Spirifer disjunctus, is well developed in northern Alaska, and iv is possible that some of the other Devonian collections made by Cairnes, which were believed by Kindle not to belong to the Middle Devonian sequence, may in fact belong in the Upper Devonian.

The Carboniferous fossils found by Cairnes along the international boundary may be correlated closely with Carboniferous faunas found elsewhere in interior and northern Alaska in that they can be split into two groups, one of late Mississippian and one of Permian age. The type upper Mississippian formation of interior Alaska is the Calico Bluff formation, on the Yukon, which is described on pages 101-106, and that of northern Alaska is the Lisburne limestone, most recently described by Smith and Mertie.36 The type Permian formation for central Alaska is the Tahkandit limestone, at the mouth of the Nation River, described on pages 125–127 of this report; and for northern Alaska, the Sadlerochit sandstone, originally described by Leffingwell 37 as Pennsylvanian but later assigned by Girty to the Permian.

* Kindle, E. M., Geologic reconnaissance of the Porcupine Valley, Alaska : Geol. Soc. America Bull., vol. 19, p. 324, 1908.

* Smith, P. S., and Mertie, J. B., jr., Geology and geography of northwestern Alaska : U. S. Geol. Survey Bull. 815, pp. 132–139, 1930.

* Kindle, E. M., op. cit., p. 329.

No great masses of limestone such as those that occur along the international boundary north of the Yukon are known along the Yukon between Eagle and Circle, but two small belts of undifferentiated limestone are found in this stretch of the river at Bull Creek and Woodchopper Creek. No fossils have been found in either of these, and their exact age is therefore unknown. The typical middle Silurian limestone as developed elsewhere in central and northern Alaska is so thick and so prominent that it is not believed that these small limestone belts can belong to the same horizon. The Middle Devonian limestone along the Yukon is associated with volcanic rocks, a condition which does not appear to exist with the belts of limestone under consideration. The Permian and Mississippian limestones are so extremely fossiliferous that it seems impossible that these undifferentiated limestones could belong to either of those horizons. There remain, so far as our present stratigraphic knowledge goes, the Cambrian, Ordovician, and upper Silurian limestone horizons, and of these the surrounding stratigraphy suggests more strongly the upper Silurian. The limestone bands crossing Bull Creek and Woodchopper Creek are therefore believed to be of possible upper Silurian age, but in the absence of conclusive proof they are mapped as undifferentiated limestone.

CAMBRIAN SYSTEM

For cartographic purposes the differentiated Cambrian and underlying rocks are shown in five units, as follows: An Upper Cambrian limestone; a Middle Cambrian limestone; a Middle Cambrian or older formation that underlies the Middle Cambrian limestone; a Lower (?) Cambrian or pre-Cambrian red-bed formation that forms the base of the visible stratigraphic sequence on the Tatonduk River; the Tindir group, as mapped by Cairnes, which is here interpreted as Cambrian or pre-Cambrian. The last two of these groups have already been described under the heading “Cambrian or pre-Cambrian rocks."

36 Smith, P. S., and Mertie, J. B., Jr., Geology and geography of northwestern Alaska : U. S. Geol. Survey Bull. 815, pp. 168–185, 1930.

87 Leffingwell, E. de K., The Canning River region, northern Alaska : U. 8. Geol. Sur. vey Prof. Paper 109, pp. 113-115, 1919.

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