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Island, and along the strait which divides it from Rowe's Island, keeping to the north of the small islands No. 51, 52, 54, 58, 59, and 61, and to the south of the small islands numbered and marked 49, 50, 53, 55, 57, 60, and X, until it approaches the northeast point of Grindstone Island; thence to the north of Grindstone Island, and keeping to the north also of the small islands No. 63, 65, 67, 68, 70, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, and 78, and to the south of No. 62, 64, 66, 69, and 71, until it approaches the southern point of Hickory Island; thence passing to the south of Hickory Island, and of the two small islands lying near its southern extremity, numbered 79 and 80; thence to the south of Grand or Long Island, keeping near its southern shore, and passing to the north of Carlton Island, until it arrives opposite to the southwestern point of said Grand Island, in Lake Ontario; thence, passing to the north of Grenadier, Fox, Stony, and the Gallop islands, in Lake Ontario, and to the south of, and near, the islands called the Ducks, to the middle of the said lake; thence westerly, along the middle of said lake, to a point opposite the mouth of the Niagara River; thence to and up the middle of the said river to the Great Falls; thence up the Falls through the point of the Horse Shoe, keeping to the west of Iris or Goat Island, and of the group of small islands at its head, and following the bends of the river so as to enter the strait between Navy and Grand islands; thence along the middle of said strait to the head of Navy Island; thence to the west and south of, and near to, Grand and Beaver islands, and to the west of Strawberry, Squaw, and Bird islands, to Lake Erie"; thence southerly and westerly, along the middle of Lake Erie, in a direction to enter the passage immediately south of Middle Island, being one of the easternmost of the group of islands lying in the western part of said lake; thence along the said passage, proceeding to the north of Cunningham's Island, of the three Bass Islands, and of the Western Sister, and to the south of the islands called the Hen and Chickens, and of the Eastern and Middle Sisters; thence to the middle of the mouth of the Detroit River, in a direction to enter the channel which divides Bois-Blanc and Sugar Islands; thence up the said channel to the west of Bois-Blanc Island, and to the east of Sugar, Fox, and Stony islands, until it approaches Fighting or Great Turkey Island; thence along the western side, and near the shore of said last-mentioned island to the middle of the river above the same; thence along the middle of said river, keeping to the southeast of, and near, Hog Island, and to the northwest, of and near the island Isle à la Pache, to Lake Saint Clair; thence through the middle of said lake in a direction to enter that mouth or channel of the river St. Clair, which is usually denominated the Old Ship Channel ; thence along the middle of said channel, between Squirrel Island on the southeast, and Herson's Island on the northwest, to the upper end of the lastmentioned island, which is nearly opposite to Point aux Chênes, on the American shore; thence along the middle of the river St. Clair, keeping to the west of, and near, the islands called Belle Riviere Isle, and Isle aux Cerfs, to Lake Huron; thence through the middle of Lake Huron, in a direction to enter the strait or passage between Drummond's Island on the west, and the Little Manitou Island on the east; thence through the middle of the passage which divides the two last-mentioned islands; thence turning northerly and westerly, around the eastern and northern shores of Drummond's Island, and proceeding in a direction to enter the passage between the island of St. Joseph's and the American shore, passing to the north of the intermediate islands No. 61, 11, 10, 12, 9, 6, 4, and 2, and to the south of those numbered 15, 13, 5, and
45 Horseshoe Reef, which is near the outlet of Lake Erie, was ceded to the United States Dec. 9, 1850, as a site for a lighthouse,
1; thence up the said last-mentioned passage, keeping near to the island St. Joseph's, and passing to the north and east of Isle à la Crosse, and of the small islands numbered 16, 17, 18, 19, and 20, and to the south and west of those numbered 21, 22, and 23, until it strikes a line (drawn on the map with black ink and shaded on one side of the point of intersection with blue, and on the other side with red), passing across the river at the head of St. Joseph's Island, and at the foot of the Neebish Rapids, which line denotes the termination of the boundary directed to be run by the sixth article of the treaty of Ghent.
And the said commissioners do further decide and declare that all the islands lying in the rivers, lakes and water communications, between the beforedescribed boundary line and the adjacent shores of Upper Canada, do, and each of them does, belong to His Britannic Majesty, and that all the islands lying in the rivers, lakes, and water communications, between the said boundary line and the adjacent shores of the United States, or their territories, do, and each of them does, belong to the United States of America, in conformity with the true intent of the second article of the said treaty of 1783, and of the sixth article of the treaty of Ghent.
In accordance with the terms of the treaty of Ghent a survey was made of the St. Lawrence and the Great Lakes, from which a map was drawn. This map was photolithographed and was published in 29 sheets by the United States Lighthouse Board in 1891.16
CONVENTION WITH GREAT BRITAIN, 1818
The convention with Great Britain concluded October 20, 1818, extended the boundary line westward along the 49th parallel of latitude to the “Stony” (Rocky] Mountains and provided that the country beyond these mountains should for 10 years remain open to both parties. Two articles of the convention are as follows: 47
ARTICLE II. It is agreed that a line drawn from the most northwestern point of the Lake of the Woods, along the forty-ninth parallel of north latitude, or if the said point shall not be in the forty-ninth parallel of north latitude, then that a line drawn from the said point due north or south, as the case may be, until the said line shall intersect the said parallel of north latitude, and from the point of such intersection due west along and with the said parallel shall be the line of demarkation between the territories of the United States, and those of His Britannic Majesty, and that the said line shall form the northern boundary of the said territories of the United States, and the southern boundary of the territories of His Britannic Majesty, from the Lake of the Woods to the Stony Mountains.
ARTICLE III. It is agreed, that any country that may be claimed by either party on the northwest coast of America, westward of the Stony Mountains, shall, together with its harbours, bays, and creeks, and the navigation of all rivers within the same, be free and open, for the term of ten years from the date of the signature of the present convention, to the vessels, citizens, and subjects of the two Powers: it being well understood, that this agreement is not to be construed to the prejudice of any claim, which either of the two high contracting parties may have to any part of the said country, nor shall it be taken
to affect the claims of any other Power or State to any part of the said country; the only object of the high contracting parties, in that respect being to prevent disputes and differences amongst themselves.
The initial point of this boundary, which the convention fixed as “ the most northwestern point” of the Lake of the Woods, was selected in 1824 by Dr. J. L. Tiarks, astronomer, and David Thompson, surveyor, who were employed by the British Government for this purpose, and their report was accepted by the United States commissioners. The point selected was about 27.5 miles north of the 49th parallel, in a swamp, where it was not feasible to establish a permanent mark, but astronomical observations were made at a reference point about 4,600 feet farther south. A pile of logs 12 feet high and 7 feet square was erected at this point, the remains of which were identified by the commissioners of 1872, who established an-iron monument on the boundary a short distance from its site.48
This monument was recovered by the commission of 1912 and reset in concrete. It is now known as boundary mark No. 925, and its position is latitude 49° 22' 39.6'', longitude 95° 09' 11.6". (See pl. 2, A.) Two reference marks were established in 1912, in latitude 49° 23' 04.49'', to fix a point which falls in water about half a mile north of boundary mark No. 925. This point was adopted by the treaty of 1925 as the north limit of the United States in the Lake of the Woods, in place of the northwesternmost angle. There are 13 metal monuments on the north-south boundary line from this point to the 49th parallel, of which No. 925 is the farthest north.
In 1824 negotiations were resumed between the two countries for the settlement, among other things, of the boundary west of the Rocky Mountains, but no conclusion was reached; the British Government claimed that the boundary line should follow the 49th parallel westward to the point where this parallel strikes the great northwestern branch of the Columbia River, thence down the middle of that river to the Pacific Ocean.
In 1826 negotiations were resumed, and several compromises were proposed by both parties, but without satisfactory results. After this the whole matter remained in abeyance until the special mission of Lord Ashburton to this country in 1842.
Meanwhile the unsettled questions regarding the eastern part of the north boundary again came up. The case having reached that stage at which it became necessary to refer the points of difference to a friendly sovereign or State, the two powers found it expedient to regulate the proceedings and make provisions in relation to such reference, and on September 29, 1827, they concluded a convention to that end.49 The respective claims of the United States and Great Britain were as follows (see fig. 1):
48 See Report on the survey of the northern boundary of the United States : 44th Cong.. 2d sess., S. Ex. Doc. 41, pp. 80-82, 1878. Final report of the International Joint Commission on the Lake of the Woods reference, p. 138, Washington, 1917. (This book contains a bibliography of publications for the Lake of the Woods region.) White, James, Boundary disputes and treaties, p. 886, Toronto, 1914. See also Hinks, A. R., Notes on the technique of boundary delimitation: Geog. Jour. (London), December, 1921, pp. 438–441.
Boundary claimed by the United States: From the source of the River St. Croix (a point of departure mutually acknowledged) the boundary should be a due north line for about 140 miles, crossing the River St. John at about 75 miles. At about 97 miles it reaches a ridge or highland which divides tributary streams of the River St. John, which falls into the Bay of Fundy, from the waters of the River Ristigouche, which falls through the Bay des Chaleurs into the Gulf of St. Lawrence. In its further course the said due north line, after crossing several upper branches of the River Ristigouche, reaches, at about 140 miles, the highlands which divide the waters of the said River Ristigouche from the tributary streams of the River Metis, which falls into the River St. Lawrence. Thence the line should run westerly and southwesterly along the highlands which divide the sources of the several rivers (from the Metis to the St. Francis) that empty themselves into the River St. Lawrencefrom the sources of the tributaries of the rivers Ristigouche, St. John, Penobscot, Kennebec, and Connecticut, all of which either mediately or immediately fall into the Atlantic Ocean.
Boundary claimed by Great Britain: From the source of the River St. Croix the boundary should be a due north line about 40 miles to a point at or near Mars Hill; then it should run westerly about 115 miles along the highlands that divide the sources of the tributaries of the River St. John from the sources of the River Penobscot to a spot called Metjarmette Portage, near the source of the River Chaudiere.
From this point the line coincides with the line claimed by the United States as far as the northwesternmost head of the Connecticut River, Great Britain claimed one of several small streams to be the northwesternmost tributary of the Connecticut River, and the United States another.
The territory in dispute comprised an area of about 12,000 square miles. The British claims were based principally on a possible uncertainty as to the identity of the River St. Croix and the proper location of the highlands."
The location of the source of the St. Croix was officially fixed by the declaration of commissioners in October, 1798. Its position as determined in 1899 is latitude 45° 56' 37.007" and longitude 67° 46' 54.715.50
** Malloy, W. M., op. cit., vol. 1, p. 646. For a history of this dispute see Moore, J. B., History and digest of international arbitration, etc. : 53d Cong., 2d sess., H. Misc. Doc. 212, vol. 1, chs. 3 and 4, 1898.
60U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey Special Pub. 46, p. 30, 1918.