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Australia should be united in a Federal Commonwealth under the name of the Commonwealth of Australia.

Thus all the five colonies of the mainland of Australia, and also the adjacent island of Tasmania, become Original States of the Commonwealth which is to be inaugurated on the first day of the twentieth century. The Commonwealth, as few dared to hope it would, comes into existence complete from the first-“a nation for a continent, and a continent for a nation.” The delays at which federalists have chafed have been tedious, and perhaps dangerous, but they have been providential; they have given time for the gradual but sure development of the national spirit in the great colonies of Queensland and Western Australia, and have prevented the establishment of a Commonwealth of Australia with half the continent of Australia left, for a time, outside.

But though Australian union has been completed, Australasian union has not. New Zealand-separated from Australia by 1,200 miles of sea, and correspondingly more self-contained and less in touch with the national sentiment of Australia-has not yet decided to enter the Commonwealth. The choice between union or isolation, which has not yet been directly presented to the people of New Zealand, cannot long be deferred. On 19th October, 1900, a resolution was passed by the New Zealand House of Representatives, on Mr. Seddon's motion, declaring it to be desirable (a) That a Royal Commission should be appointed to inquire into and report upon the desirability or otherwise of New Zealand becoming a State of the Commonwealth : (b) that if the Commissioners deem Federation for the present inadvisable or premature, they should report as to the establishment of a reciprocal treaty between the Commonwealth and New Zealand, and indicate the lines on which it should be based : (c) that the Commissioners entrusted with this all-important inatter, affecting the national life and well-being of New Zealand, should be conversant with the agricultural, commercial, and industrial interests of the colony, and be otherwise eminently fitted for their high office: (d) that they should be empowered to proceed to Australia to take evidence: and (e) that their report should be presented to the New Zealand Parliament within ten days of the opening of the next session.

The report of this Commission will be awaited with interest. Meanwhile Mr. Seddon's “Greater New Zealand ” policy (see p. 639, infra) indicates that he is endeavouring to secure as advantageous a position as possible for a commercial treaty with the Commonwealth, in the event of a decision adverse to immediate union.

APPOINTMENT OF THE GOVERNOR-GENERAL.—On 14th July it was officially announced that the first Governor-General of the Commonwealth of Australia would be the Right Honourable the Earl of Hopetoun, G.C.M.G., then Lord Chamberlain. Lord Hopetoun was already well known in Australia, having been Governor of Victoria from 1889 to 1895, during which time he had been one of the most popular, although one of the youngest, of Australian Governors, and had earned the reputation of a tactful and capable administrator, and a worthy representative of the Crown. His choice as the first holder of the high and honourable office of Governor-General of the Commonwealth gave general satisfaction.

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The actual appointment of the Governor-General could not, in accordance with clause 3 of the Commonwealth Act, be made until after the issue of the Queen's Proclamation which fixed the date of the establishment of the Commonwealth. On 21st September Lord Hopetoun waited upon the Queen at Balmoral Castle, when Her Majesty invested him with the knighthood of the Order of the Thistle. He delivered into Her Majesty's hands the wand and badge of the Lord Chamberlain of Her Majesty's Household, and received the commission of his appointment as Governor-General.

PREPARATIONS FOR THE INAUGURATION.—Shortly after the Royal Proclamation, it was announced that the inauguration of the Commonwealth, on the 1st January, 1901, would take place in Sydney. The Parliaments of the six colonies began to legislate, under the authority of clause 4 of the Commonwealth Act, and secs. 9 and 29 of the Constitution, for prescribing the method of choosing senators, determining the times and places of elections of senators, and determining the electoral divisions for the House of Representatives; with such other local legislation as was deemed advisable in view of the approaching change in the political condition of the colonies.

On 17th September, it was officially announced that the Queen, on the recommendation of Lord Salisbury, had assented to a visit by the Duke and Duchess of York to Australia, early in the year 1901, when the Duke of York would be commissioned by Her Majesty to open the first session of the Parliament of the Commonwealth in her name. Although Her Majesty naturally shrank from parting from her grandson for so long a period, she fully recognized the greatness of the occasion which would bring her colonies of Australia into federal union, and desired to give this special proof of her interest in all that concerned the welfare of her Australian subjects. Her Majesty wished at the same time to signify her sense of the loyalty and devotion which had prompted the spontaneous aid so liberally offered by all the colonies in the South African War, and of the splendid gallantry of her colonial troops.

Conclusion. During the past century the foundations of Australian nationhood have been laid ; with the new century will begin the task of building the superstructure. Political barriers have been broken down, and the constitutional compact which, politically speaking, creates the Australian people, has been framed, accepted, and established. But all this is only the beginning. The new national institutions of Australia have to be tested in the fire of experience ; provincial jealousies have to be obliterated; national sentiment has to be consolidated; the fields of national legislation and national administration have to be occupied. Australian statesmanship and patriotism, which have proved equal to the task of constructing the Constitution, and of creating a new nation within the Empire, are now face to face with the greater and more responsible task of welding: into a harmonious whole the elements of national unity, and of guiding the Australian people to their destiny-a destiny which, it may be hoped, will always be linked with that of the mighty Empire of which they form a part.

LIST OF MEMBERS OF FEDERAL CONVENTIONS,

CONFERENCES, &c.

Intercolonial A.N.A. Federation Conference, Melbourne,

January, 1890.

OFFICERS :

PRESIDENT. —Sir John C. Bray, K.C.M.G., Speaker of the House of Assembly,

South Australia.

VICE-PRESIDENTS.-Messrs. G. H. Wise and B. B. Nicoll, M.P..

SECRETARIES. - Messrs. F. C. Wainwright, W. Burnet, and J. W. Hill.

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AUSTRALIAN NATIVES' ASSOCIATION VICTORIA,

List of Presidents of the Board of Directors, from its

inception to June, 1900:Mr. T. O'Callaghan

Melbourne

1877 and 1878 S. Cadden

Ballarat

1879 and 1880 M. J. Cahill

Bendigo

1881 Wm. Anderson

Creswick

1882 R. H. Hart

Stawell

1883 0. E. Wilson

Ballarat

1884 A. J. Peacock, M.L. A.... Creswick

1885, 1886, 1893 T. J. Connelly

Bendigo

1887 J L. Purves, Q.C.

Melbourne

1888, 1889 D. J. W heal

Ballarat

18.90 G. H. Wise

Sale

1891 J. W. Larter

Ballarat

1892 G. Fitzsimmons

Prahran

1894 J. W. Kirton, M. L. A. Ballarat

1895 J. H. Cook, M.L. A.

Brunswick

1896 R. F. Toutcher, M.LA ... Richmond

1897 Dr. C. Carty Salmon, M L.A. Avoca

1898 Mr. E. E. Roberts

Flemington

1899 Walter Skelton

Dunolly

1900

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NATIONAL AUSTRALASIAN CONVENTION, 1891.

OFFICERS : PRESIDENT. — The Honourable Sir Henry Parkes, G.C.M.G., M.L.A. VICE-PRESIDENT. - The Honourable Sir Samuel Walker Griffith, K.C.M.G., Q.C., M.L.A.

DELEGATES.

New South Wales. The Honourable Sir Henry Parkes, The Honourable William Henry Suttor, G.C.M.G., M.L.A.

M.L.C. The Honourable William McMillan, M.L.A. The Honourable Edmund Barton, Q.C., The Honourable Joseph Palmer Abbott, M.L.C. M.L.A.

The Honourable Sir Patrick Alfred George Richard Dibbs, Esquire, M.L. A. Jennings, K.C.M.G., LL.D., M.L.C.

New Zealand. Sir George Grey, K.C.B.

The Honourable Sir Harry Albert Atkinson, Captain William Russell Russell, M.H.R. K.C.M.G., M.L C.

Queensland. * The Honourable John Murtagh Macrossan, The Honourable Sir Thomas McIlwraith, M. L. A.

K.C.M.G., LL.D., M.L.A.
The Honourable John Donaldson, M.L.A. The Honourable Arthur Rutledge, M.L.A.
The Honourable Sir Samuel Walker Griffith, The Honourable Andrew Joseph Thynne,
K.C.M.G., Q.C., M.L.A.

M.L.C.
The Honourable Thomas Macdonald-Paterson, M.L.C.

South Australia. The Honourable Richard Chaffey Baker, John Alexander Cockburn, Esquire, M.D., C.M.G., MLC.

M.H.A. The Honourable John Hannah Gordon, The Honourable Sir John William Downer, M.L.C.

K C.M.G., Q.C., M H.A.
The Honourable Sir John Cox Bray, The Honourable Charles Cameron Kingston,
K C. M.G., M.H.A.

Q.C., M.H.A.
The Honourable Thomas Playford, M.H.A.

Tasmania.
The Honourable William Moore, M.L.C. The Honourable Nicholas John Brown,
The Honourable Adye Douglas, M.L.C.

M.H.A. l'he Honourable Andrew Inglis Clark, The Honourable Bolton Stafford Bird, M.H.A.

M.H. A. The Honourable William Henry Burgess, The Honourable Philip Oakley Fysh, M.H.A.

M.L.C.

Victoria. 'The Honourable Alfred Deakin, M. L. A. The Honourable Henry John Wrixon, Q.C. The Honourable James Munro, M.L.A.

M.L.A. The Honourable Lieutenant-Colonel William The Honourable Duncan Gillies, M.L.A. Collard Smith, M.L.A.

The Honourable Henry Cuthbert, M.L.C. The Honourable Nicholas Fitzgerald, M.L C. | The Honourable William Shiels, M.L.A.

Western Australia. The Honourable John Forrest, C.M.G., The Honourable John Arthur Wright, M.L.A.

M.L.C.
The Honourable William Edward Marmion, The Honourable John Winthrop Hackett,
M.L.A.

M.L.C.
The Honourable Sir James George Lee- Alexander Forrest, Esquire, M. L. A.
Steere, M.L.A.

William Thorley Loton, Esquire, M.L. A. * Decease reported 31st March, † Acting from 2nd to 9th March, during absence of Mr. Wrixon.

COROWA FEDERATION CONFERENCE,

AUGUST, 1893.

OFFICERS :
PRESIDENT. - Mr. B. B. Nicoll, M.L.A.
VICE-PRESIDENTS. —

: - Messis. J. Wilkinson, M.L.A., E. J. Gorman, A. Jameson, and
Dr. Quick.
SECRETARY. - Mr. Edward Wilson.
ASSISTANT SECRETARY.- Mr. E. Lapthorne.
TREASURER. - Mr. A. A. Piggin.
FINANCE COMMITTEE.—Messrs. G. H. Willis, G. H. Smith, C. T. Brewer.

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