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he discovered land, which he called Staaten Land, but which afterwards acquired the name of New Zealand; he anchored in a bay in the Strait, between the North and Middle Islands. He then sailed northward, passed and named Cape Maria Van Diemen, and made for the tropics, where he discovered the Tonga Islands. Had Tasman sailed from Van Diemen's Land northward instead of eastward, he would have anticipated Cook's discovery of eastern Australia by one hundred years. In 1664, the country, whose leading outlines were yet dimly understood, was named New Holland by the States-General, and the discoveries of Tasman were proudly inscribed on the map of the world, cut in stone upon the New Staathaus in Amsterdam. In 1683, William Dampier, one of a company of bold buccaneers,

voyage round the world. " After passing throu many wild adventures, Dampier obtained the command of a vessel called the Cygnet, in which he reached the Philippines, and thence he proceeded on a voyage to New Holland. He reached the west coast in latitude 16° 50' on 4th January, 1688. In his narrative he said : “New Holland is a very large tract of land. It is not yet determined whether it is an island or a main continent, but I am certain that it joins neither Asia, Africa or America.” Dampier returned to England on 2nd September, 1691. In 1699, King William III. organized an expedition for the discovery of unknown lands. Dampier was placed in command, the name of the ship in which he sailed being the Roebuck. He reached the coast of New Holland on 4th July, 1699, and on the 1st August his ship struck the Abrolhos rocks, but escaped being wrecked. A harbour was found, which proved to be that of Dirk Hartog, who had anchored there in 1616. To this harbour Dampier gave the name of Shark's Bay. Afterwards Dampier sailed northward, passing in his course the archipelago which now bears his name. The coastline traced by him was apparently sterile and inhospitable. Dampier was the first Englishman who landed on the shores of New Holland. By some historians he has. been styled the “prince of voyagers” and “the Cook of a former age.” European writers like Humboldt have borne testimony to his bravery, his skill, and his genius as a mariner, and to the value and accuracy of his reports concerning his discoveries.—Blair's History of Australia (1879), pp. 29-34.

The only voyage of consequence between Dampier's time and that of Cook was one by Willem de Vlamingh, a Dutch navigator, who, in 1699, was ordered by his Government to search for the Dutch ship Ridderschap, which was lost in 1684. In his search along the west coast, in the Geeliruk, Vlamingh discovered and entered Swan River.

Cook's DISCOVERIES.— To Captain James Cook, one of Britain's bravest and most illustrious mariners, was reserved the immortal fame of commencing and completing a voyage of discovery next in importance to those of Columbus and Magellan, by which he solved the problem of the Great Southern Continent, discovered and explored the eastern shores of Australia—or New Holland, as it was then called—and took possession of it in the name of the British Crown. The immediate occasion and motive of Cook's first voyage was not a

thirst for gold or empire on the part of the British Government, but the conduct of a scientific expedition to the island of Otaheite, now called Tahiti, in the South Sea, for the purpose of observing the transit of the planet Venus across the sun's disc. On 26th August, 1768, Captain Cook sailed from Plymouth in the Endeavour, a barque of 360 tons, originally built for the coal trade. The barque was victualled for an eighteen months' voyage. Among those on board were Mr. (afterwards Sir) Joseph Banks, President of the Royal Society ; Mr. Charles Green, Assistant Astronomer; Dr. Solander, a Swedish Botanist; Zackary Hicks, lieutenant; Robert Molineux, master; Charles Clerke, mate; John Guthrey, boatswain ; Stephen Forwood, gunner; John Satterly, carpenter; William B. Monkhouse, surgeon; Richard Orton, clerk. Cook's instructions were to sail to Otaheite, and after the completion of the astronomical observations to proceed south as far as the 40th parallel—with a view to ascertaining the existence of the supposed “ Terra Australis," or Great Southern Continent (quite distinct from New Holland) which geographers believed to exist in polar regions—and then to steer westward until he reached New Zealand, after which he was to return to England.

The transit of Venus having been successfully observed, Cook and his party left Otaheite in the Erdeavour on 13th July, 1769. He reached a latitude of 40° 12' without finding the imaginary continent, and then proceeded westward. After a run of about sixty-eight days, a lad on board the Endeavour, named Nicholas Young, saw land from the masthead, which afterwards proved to be the south-west point of Poverty Bay, New Zealand. That was on 6th October, 1769. Various parts of the island were visited, and on 10th November, 1769, Cook took formal possession of the country in the name of King George III. Having circumnavigated New Zealand and passed through the Straits which now bear his name, Cook, on 31st March, 1770, sailed from Cape Farewell towards the west, his plan being to steer westward until he should reach the east coast of New Holland, and then to follow the direction of that coast northward. On 18th April, Lieutenant Hicks caught sight of a projection of land which was named after him, Point Hicks. The name was subsequently changed to Cape Everard; it is situated between Cape Howe and the entrance to the Snowy River. Proceeding northward, on 28th April, a bay was discovered and entered, and a landing effected. The name given to it at the time-as appears from Cook's private log—was “ Sting-ray Harbour;” and its present name of Botany Bay, obviously suggested by Banks' botanical discoveries, appears for the first time in Dr. Hawkesworth's embellished narrative of Cook's voyages.

See Historical Records of N.S.W., Vol. I., p. 161. During his stay in Botany Bay Cook caused the British flag to be displayed on the shore ; and the ship's name and the date of his visit were inscribed on one of the trees near the watering place. On 6th May, 1770, the Endeavour resumed her voyage worthward, and at noon on the same day Cook observed an opening in the coast which he called “Port Jackson," probably in honour of Mr. (afterwards Sir) George Jackson, one of the Secretaries of the Admiralty. See Historical Records of N.S.W., Vol. I., pp. 170-2.

In the voyage northward all the prominent features of the coast were noted and named, including Smoky Cape, Port Macquarie, Moreton Bay, Cape Capricorn, and other bays and capes. After skirting the dangerous coast for a distance of about thirteen hundred miles, the Endeavour narrowly escaped shipwreck by striking some coral rocks. On 21st October, 1770, Cape York was reached. The coast was followed in order to determine whether there was a passage between New Holland and New Guinea. A channel having been found, it was named Endeavour Straits-a name which has since been dropped in favour of Torres, the intrepid Portuguese who is supposed to have first sailed through. Cook landed and took formal possession of the whole country along which he had coasted. Cook's log, as “written up” by Hawkesworth, contains the following entry :- —“I once more hoisted English colours, and though I had already taken possession of several parts, I now took possession of the whole eastern coast in right of His Majesty King George III., by the name of New South Wales, with all the bays, harbours, rivers and islands situated upon it; we then fired three volleys of small arms, which were answered by the same number from the ship. Having performed this ceremony upon the island we called it Possession Island.”—Hawkesworth, Voyages, Vol. III., p. 616.

Legend has it that Cook gave this name to the country owing to a fancied resemblance to the Welsh coast about Swansea.

It is remarkable, however, that neither his official log nor his private log, nor any of the journals of the ship's company, mentions the name of New South Wales. It seems either to have been an after-thought, or to have originated with Hawkesworth. See Historical Records of N.S.W., Vol. I., pp. 169-70.

The first voyage of the Endeavour, and Cook's discoveries, constitute a story full of thrilling interest to Australians. His heroic services and his great work have not yet been adequately recognized by those of the British race who now possess and enjoy the glorious heritage, the Australian continent, which he helped so materially to bequeath to them. Whilst we are now celebrating the establishment of the Australian Commonwealth, and rejoicing at the beginning of a new era of national life which shall give us a more exalted citizenship, and a wider patriotism, let us not forget James Cook and his courageous comrades, who in a frail barque of 360 tons dared the storms of two oceans in search of new homes for the unborn millions of the British race. All honour to the name of Captain Cook !

Cook's second great voyage was commenced on 13th July, 1772, in the Resolution, 462 tons burthen; he was accompanied by Captain Tobias Furneaux, in the Adventure, 336 tons. The object was to make further search for the supposed Southern Continent of the geographers. In this voyage Cook and Furneaux directed their course towards the South Pole, and penetrated beyond the Antarctic circle. On 8th February, 1773, the two vessels became separated. Cook then directed his course to Queen Charlotte's Sound, New Zealand, the appointed rendezvous. Captain Furneaux followed a more northerly course, coasted along the southern and eastern shores

of Van Diemen's Land, and met Cook at Queen Charlotte's Sound. Subsequently Cook cruised in the Pacific, visited and named the New Hebrides group, landed on and named New Caledonia, discovered and named Norfolk Island. He returned to England on 30th July, 1775, after an absence of over three years, having conclusively proved that no Polar Continent existed in navigable seas. See Historical Records of N.S.W., Vol. I., pp. 333, 380.

In 1776 Cook commenced his third and last voyage. On this occasion he was again in command of the Resolution, and was accompanied by Captain Clarke, in the Discovery, 300 tons. On 26th January, 1777, he arrived off the coast of Van Diemen's Land and anchored in Adventure Bay, which had been so named by Captain Furneaux. On 30th January the Resolution and Discovery left Van Dieren's Land and sailed for New Zealand. Thence they left for the Society Islands. Cook's tragic death took place at Hawaii, one of the Sandwich Islands, on 14th February, 1779. His work was done. Australia, Tasmania and New Zealand were by his labours for ever secured to the inheritance of the British people.

PROJECTS FOR SETTLEMENT. —The project of a settlement on the east coast of New Holland seems to have been due to the enthusiastic reports of Sir Joseph Banks as to the fertility and capacity of the country. Before a Committee of the House of Commons, appointed in 1779 to enquire into the question of transportation, he gave evidence that if it were thought expedient to establish a penal settlement in a distant land, “the place which appeared to him best adapted for such a purpose was Botany Bay, on the coast of New Holland.”—Barton, History of N.S.W., Vol. I., p. xlv. The Committee, without recommending any particular locality, reported in favour of establishing a convict colony in some distant part of the globe.

The existing laws, however, only authorized transportation to the colonies and plantations of North America (see the Act 4 George I. c. 11); and as the independence of the American colonies had now been recognized, further legislation was necessary. Accordingly in 1781 the Act was passed under which the first settlement of Australia took place, and which is dealt with in Part III. of this introduction.

Mention may here be made of a proposal by an Englishman, James Maria Matra, to establish in New South Wales a free settlement for the American loyalists who had suffered for their allegiance to the Crown during the war, and who might wish to remain under the British flag. This plan, though it received the hearty support of Sir Joseph Banks, was not favourably received by the Government, and New South Wales thus missed the opportunity of being founded as a free and settled colony.-Barton, History of N.S.W., Vol I.,

pp. 1-10.

From Cook to Flinders.—On 20th January, 1788, Captain Arthur Phillip arrived at Botany Bay with “the First Fleet,” consisting of His Majesty's frigate Sirius, in command of Captain John Hunter, accompanied by one armed tender, three store ships, and six transports, conveying six hundred male and two hundred female prisoners, a guard consisting of one Major Commandant, three captains of marines, twelve sub-lieutenants, twenty-four non-commissioned officers,

and one hundred and sixty-eight privates. There were also among them forty-two women, wives of the marines, together with their children. It was found that Botany Bay was not suitable for the proposed settlement. The ships remained in the harbour whilst Captain Phillip sailed along the coast in a boat for the purpose of examining the opening recorded by Captain Cook, and by him named Port Jackson. It was found to be a noble aud beautiful harbour. In one of its many bays a site suitable for a settlement was selected, and named “Sydney Cove” in honour of Viscount Sydney, one of the members of Pitt's administration. Returning to Botang Bay, Captain Phillip proceeded to make arrangements to send the ships around to Sydney Cove. Meanwhile two ships, flying the French colours, appeared on the scene. They proved to be the French exploring vessels Boussole and Astrolabe, under the command of La Perouse ; they came there for wood and water. After delivering to Captain Phillip despatches to be forwarded to the French Government, La Perouse sailed away across the Pacific, and was never again seen or heard of, but in 1826 traces of his wrecked ship were found on the island of Vanikoro, near the Fijis. On 26th January the fleet sailed into Port Jackson. The people were disembarked at Sydney Cove. The British colours were hoisted. The Royal Proclamation and Commission constituting the colony of New South Wales were read. A salute was fired. The work begun by Cook was about to bear its fruit in the shape of Australian settlement and colonization.

In April, 1791, George Vancouver, an English navigator, who accompanied Captain Cook on his second and third voyages, made a careful survey of the south-west coast of Australia, in the course of which he inspected a harbour which he named King George's Sound in honour of the reigning sovereign.

In 1792, a French expedition, under Admiral Bruni D'Entrecasteaux in the Recherche, accompanied by Captain Huon Kermadec in the Esperance, discovered Recherche Archipelago and Esperance Bay, W.A., and then visited the coast of Van Diemen's Land, in search of the lost La Perouse. They passed through the channel bearing the name of the Admiral, and sailed up the Huon and the Derwent.

In 1795 Captain John Hunter arrived in New South Wales, in the Reliance, to commence his duties as Governor in succession to Captain Phillip. There came with him two young men whose names have become honoured by their association with memorable events in connection with Australian maritime discoveries- Matthew Flinders, midshipman, and George Bass, surgeon. They afterwards took a leading part in exploring previously unknown tracts in Australian waters, and in solving geographical problems of great importance. On 3rd December, 1797, whilst Flinders was engaged on a surveying voyage at Furneaux's Islands, Bass, obtaining from the Governor the use of a whaleboat, a crew of six men, and provisions for six weeks, started from Sydney, cleared the heads and sailed southwards; explored the coast, discovered Twofold Bay, passed southward beyond the great projection of land, now called Wilson's Promontory,

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