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tion. It seems improper to men who often at financial sacrifice, hare spent years to attain doctor's degrees and perhaps also have given years of service in the institution, that the professor of physical education, who holds only a B. S. degree, is given the highest faculty rating and the control of a department.

The women's department is included under the entire division of physical education and athletics in 12 institutions. In 9 institutions the health service is included in this department, and in 19 the teaching of hygiene is included.

The land-grant institutions are realizing the fact that a medical examination as well as a physical examination should be the basis for assigning students to the right physical education sections; a large number make the entire examination of the incoming students either in the health service or in the health service in conjunction with the physical education department. Even among the 16 which said that the examination was made in the physical education department and the records kept there, a large proportion indicated that the services of the college physician or of the medical staff were called on for the medical part of this examination. In two cases the medical examining was done by outside physicians employed only for this purpose. Occasionally also the military department cooperated in the entrance examination. On the basis of the facts shown in the examination the students are assigned to courses in the physical education department.

Twenty-four of the land-grant institutions require physical education of all their students, while 20 do not. Eleven of those which replied that they did not require physical education of all students qualified this by reporting that they required exercise in the freshman year for all. The hours of credit ranged from one-half to three credits a year. Eight institutions gave no credit for it; in 5 military training could be substituted for the required physical education, but in 36 this was not permitted. Wherever physical education is required it is for two years.

A great change in the type of physical education offered is noticeable in the last few years. The old formal floor work, with its lack of relation to anything in the student's life after college, has pretty well disappeared except where it is prescribed for corrective and posture work. In its place is a vast array of physical activities that have their counterparts in recreation the world over. Twenty-five types of sports were mentioned and these could all be elected as the equivalent of formal gymnasium training from the freshman year on. Those most frequently mentioned were football, basketball, baseball, track, cross country, tennis, and swimming. Boxing, wrestling, and fencing came next in frequency, then handball, volley ball, and soccer.

The six institutions that have golf courses permitted their students to elect golf in place of the required gymnasium work, thus offering early training for what is becoming more and more a valuable business and social asset in later life. Skating and ice hockey were offered in the northern schools.

The second important element of physical education work is that of intramural sports, possibly the most hopeful sign in the whole field of competitive play. More and more the land-grant institutions are building up the interest of the men in their schools in the program of play for everyone. Thirty-six of the land-grant institutions report a definite program of this kind. Thirty of them have a director on their staff for this work, while 7 leave it in charge of either a graduate manager or a student manager. The difference of the student attitude, however, in regard to the required work in physical education and the intramural program is shown by the fact that only 9 of the 30 that have a staff director report that they do not have student managers cooperating with him. In the schools where the program is developed most fully, the system seems to work out best by having full student participation in the making of the plans and the rules to govern the program, as well as in deciding on the awards.

The following table shows the number of students participating in each of the intramural sports in comparison with the total number of men enrolled in the institution together with the types of teams.


TABLE 4.-Number of men participating in intramural athletics

Alaska Agricultural College and School of Mines
University of Arizona
University of Arkansas.
University of California
Colorado Agricultural College
Connecticut Agricultural College
University of Delaware
University of Florida.
University of Hawaii.
University of Idaho
University of Minois.
Purdue University.
Iowa State College
Kansas State Agricultural College..
University of Kentucky
Louisiana State University
University of Maine
Massachusetts Agricultural College
Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
University of Minnesota
Mississippi Agricultural and Mechanical College.
Montana State College
University of Nebraska.
University of Nevada
University of New Hampshire
Rutgers University-
North Carolina State College
North Dakota Agricultural College
Ohio State University.
Oklahoma Agricultural and Mechanical College







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Oregon Agricultural College.
Rhode Island State College
Clemson Agricultural College
South Dakota State College.
University of Tennessee.
Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas.
Agricultural College of Utah
Virginia Agricultural and Mechanical College.
State College of Washington.
West Virginia University-
University of Wisconsin.
University of Wyoming-


16, 125


11, 372 9,766

5, 309

1, 525

1, 774

2, 299

2,792 2, 922



8, 225

3, 356




Since the aims of intramural athletics imply teams and competition, it is gratifying to find so many students engaging in contests in which the rivalry is only one element in the play spirit of recreation. Even where competition is especially keen among rival teams within the institution, only one reported that the evils even approach those of intercollegiate athletics, and the only example quoted was that of the intensity of rivalry between fraternity groups. The awards and external incentives are for the most part extremely insignificant. They are usually inexpensive cups for teams, medals for individual winners, placques, ribbons, and numerals.

The best features of intramural athletics mentioned by the reporting institutions are: The participation of the majority of the student body; the fact that this participation, because of the variety of intramural sports offered, last all the year around; the breaking down of rather artificial lines of social demarcation in the make-up of teams; the keeping of systematic individual records and the incentive that these give to a man to keep himself fit; and the excellent practice that intramural sports give to the letter men of the intercollegiate teams in coaching. Institution after institution mentioned that much of its coaching of intramural athletics is done by the intercollegiate team men who are barred from competing on the intramural teams. A number of institutions also mentioned the fact that the intramural teams are the best feeders for the intercollegiate teams and that a man has before him always the incentive that if he shows himself good enough in the intramural work he has an excellent chance of attaining the more sought after position in intercollegiate athletics

The drawbacks to the success of the intramural program most frequently mentioned were the lack of facilities. Even where the facilities appeared to be most adequate the factor of intercollegiate priority enters in; the football fields, the baseball diamonds, the running tracks, and the swimming pool, are frequently preempted at the most desirable times for the training of the intercollegiate athletes, and the intramural teams can use them only in the intervening periods. One school reports plaintively that because of this fact its students are driven to use the facilities of a near-by city and that their swarming out in the earlier morning hours “ awakens both the citizens and their ire." Twenty-eight of the land-grant institutions reported inadequate funds to carry on the work, while only 10 felt that they were unable to give adequate supervision; 2 mentioned the unreasonableness of the classroom schedules that demand the best hours of the student's day; 2 felt that the intramural work is hampered by the fact that it is regarded only as a feeder for the intercollegiate teams. The great problem of how to get the right amount of rivalry without having it grow beyond bounds was mentioned

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