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the law makes definite provision for the giving of free scholarships for use at the land-grant institutions. In 1927–28, 3,706 scholarships were given to students directly from State funds. If to this number be added those awarded by the institutions themselves, presumably from funds appropriated for the general use of the institutions, the number would be almost doubled.

In 1927–28, the laws of Arizona, Florida, Illinois, Indiana, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Vermont, Virginia, and Wisconsin, provided for the giving of free scholarships to the citizens of the State for use at the land-grant institutions. South Dakota was also among the States in that year having students studying at the land-grant college on scholarships granted by State law, but the practice of giving these scholarships was abolished by the legislature in 1927. As the act was not retroactive, 97 students were attending the South Dakota State College in 1927–28 on scholarships previously granted by the State for a period of years.

The total number of grants made under the various designations of scholarships, fellowships, assistantships, reductions in fees, etc., made by the institutions themselves was 3,466. Presumably the major portion of these grants was made from funds appropriated by the State for the general use of the institutions and were thus indirectly given by the State. While not all of these grants represented an outlay from which the institutions received no return, the larger proportion of them was given to students free from the obligation of service. Less than one-third of the 3,466 students awarded scholarships, fellowships, or other forms of scholarship aid from the funds of the institutions were required to render service.

Organizations of different kinds—alumni, clubs, patriotic societies, industrial concerns, etc.,-place funds for scholarships and fellowships with the land-grant colleges. Six hundred and sixty-four scholarships and fellowships were awarded in 1927–28 from these funds. A very large proportion of these grants being made by industrial concerns for the purpose of investigation of particular problems, the recipients were required more often to render service, usually in the form of research, than in the case of the grants made by any of the other agencies.

Seven hundred and thirty-six of the 8,572 scholarships and fellowships awarded were established by private individuals or from funds contributed by them. These scholarships and fellowships were almost entirely in the nature of gifts upon which the donors placed no conditions of service.

3 The granting of State free scholarships at the State university was abolished by act of the New Jersey Legislature in 1929.

The number of men in land-grant colleges granted scholarship concessions in 1927–28 far exceeded the number of women, the awards made definitely to men being 5,028, those made definitely to women 1,423. Two thousand one hunderd and twenty-one scholarships and fellowships were given the sex of the recipients of which was not shown. Although men received more than three times as many awards as the women, 7,009 of the 8,572 scholarships and fellowships given were available to women as well as to men. On the other hand, there were 1,252 scholarships available to men for which women were not eligible while there were but 311 scholarships available to women for which men were not eligible.

Of the 3,706 grants made under State laws, 3,010 were available to both men and women, the remaining 696 being available to men only. Two thousand nine hundred and eighty-five of the 3,455 grants made by the institutions were open to both men and women; 346 of them were open only to men, and 135 of them were open only to

Both men and women were eligible for 520 of the grants made by organizations; men only were eligible to 81 others, and women only were eligible to 93 others. Of the 736 grants made by individuals, 494 were available to both men and women, 129 were available to men only, and 83 were available to women only.

In the following table are shown the number of scholarships given in 1927-28 by the several donors, the number available to men only, to women only, and to both sexes, and the number of awards made in each case.

women.

TABLE 7.-Scholarship grants available and awarded to students in land-grant

colleges, 1927-28

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Several of the institutions could not separate the scholarships awarded to men from those awarded to

women.

Scholarships for Study in Special Fields The conditions under which the greatest number of scholarships and fellowships were awarded in the land-grant colleges in 1927–28 allowed the students freedom in the choice of the field of study.

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417

90

For three-fourths, or 6,425 of the total number of scholarships given, no limitation upon the choice of the field was imposed except that in some cases specification was made that they be used in the general field of the arts and sciences. The number of scholarships given in land-grant colleges in 1927–28 for general study and of scholarships given for study in specially designated fields are shown in numerical order below: General scholarships, including arts and sciences.

6, 425 Agriculture

561 Medicine--Home economics_

174 Education

96 Law--Chemistry Engineering (general) Ceramics History---English Commerce and business, and botany, each. Physics and zoology, each.

18 31 25

21 German

14 Political science and psychology, each_

13 Electrical engineering

11 Civil engineering and journalism, each.

9 Bacteriology and philosophy, each.

S Veterinary medicine

7 Geology and mineralogy, romance languages, mathematics, and music, each.

6 Economics--

5 Biology, Greek, and mechanical engineering, each Architecture-

3 Chemical engineering, gas engineering, forestry, metallurgy, and speech, each -

2 Archæology, mining and metallurgical engineering, French, Latin, and pathology, each

1 Miscellaneous fields

298 Of the total number of scholarships awarded in specific fields, the largest number, 561, were given in agriculture. This number would doubtless be increased if the record showed the fields in which the students holding the 6,425 scholarships for which no field was designated were registered. It is doubtful if it would be further increased by the addition of other scholarships awarded in agriculture and home economics for which the records failed to show the number awarded in each of these subjects. The method used in the study for separating these scholarships was by placing those awarded to men in the agricultural field and those awarded to women in the home economics field. The distribution of scholarships in agriculture among the institutions was more general than that of scholarships in any of the other special fields. Land-grant institutions in exactly half of the States—California, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, New Jersey, New York, North Dakota, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Utah, Vermont, Washington, Wiscon

sin—and the University of Hawaii reported the award of scholarships in agriculture in 1927-28.

The number of scholarships and fellowships in medicine, the next largest group awarded in special subjects, would seem to be out of proportion to the number given in other fields more commonly chosen by students. If the number of grants made to medical students in the land-grant institutions in 1927–28 had been evenly distributed among the 15 land-grant institutions having medical schools, there would have been 27.8 scholarships or fellowships for each institution. As a matter of fact this large number of scholarships and fellowships was given principally at two institutions, the University of Minnesota and the University of Vermont. The grants made at the University of Minnesota, 337 in all, were, with the exception of one fellowship, in the nature of assistantships for which the recipients rendered half-time service and received $800, and in some cases more, and free tuition. Two hundred and ninety-nine of them were given by the Mayo Foundation, 4 by the Miller Hospital Clinic, and 33 by the university. One for $500 given by an individual required no service. At the University of Vermont, 50 scholarships for $100 each were given. These scholarships, the only medical scholarships recorded as being provided for by State law, involved the rendering of no service but obligated the recipients to practice their profession in the State after graduation for the number of years for which the scholarship was used, or to return the amount received.

One hundred and seventy-four scholarships, the third largest group of scholarships awarded for study in special fields, were given for the study of home economics. As mentioned in the case of agriculture, this number may have been considerably increased by the award in this field of scholarships for which no field was specified and perhaps also by the addition of others which were not separated from those in agriculture. An interesting fact concerning the 174 scholarships designated for use in home economics is that 133 of them were given by the University of Illinois. Outside the State of Illinois, only 41 scholarships distributed among the land-grant institutions of eight States and the University of Hawaii designated specifically for study in home economics were awarded by the landgrant institutions in 1927-28.

Engineering students received 139 scholarships and fellowships. Of these, 77 were for study in specialized fields including civil, electrical, chemical, mechanical, ceramic, gas, and mining and metallurgical engineering. The number of scholarships for study in ceramic engineering is surprisingly large compared to the number given in some of the other fields of engineering more commonly offered by the land-grant institutions and more often pursued by students. As in the case of medicine, the scholarships in ceramic

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engineering were not distributed among a number of institutions but were confined to two, the University of Illinois and the Ohio State University. Illinois alone awarded 44 of the scholarships in ceramic engineering. The university grants one scholarship in this subject annually to each county in the State.

Between the number of scholarships awarded in engineering and number in the field in which the next highest awards were madeeducation—there was a decided drop. Ninety-six scholarships, fellowships, and assistantships were given specifically for study in education. Of this number, 76 were given at the University of Florida, 64 of which were awarded by virtue of a State law providing for the appointment of a number of fellows equal to the number of State senators and representatives to study in the teachers college of the university. The other 12 fellowships awarded at the university were given by the institution itself.

Two other subjects in which a considerable number of scholarships were granted were law 90, and chemistry, 88. The University of Nebraska gave 58, almost two-thirds of the scholarships in law. The awards in chemistry were distributed over a number of institutions.

The group of 301 scholarships, fellowships, and assistantships for study in miscellaneous fields comprises chiefly those given by industrial organizations for the study of special problems, the solution of which is of interest to those organizations. It includes also grants made by the institutions themselves for investigation and research in subjects which do not fall in the list of subjects given, as well as scholarships and fellowships reported as being available in a number of fields but without designation of the number given in each field.

Annual value. The scholarships and fellowships awarded ranged in annual value from less than $49 to more than $2,000. The major portion, 82.2 per cent of the awards, were for amounts ranging from less than $49 to $250–$299. The value most frequently given was $100-$149. Two thousand four hundred and fifty-five, or 28.5 per cent of the total number of grants, were made in the $100-$149 range. Of this number the States gave 1,603, or more than half, and almost one-half of the State awards were in this range. The States gave no scholarships or fellowships valued above $350.

The next highest number of awards was for amounts below $50, and the institutions themselves gave 89.5 per cent of the 1,572 scholarships awarded. It is probable that a large proportion of the awards in the lower value ranges made by the institutions were in the nature of reduction of fees for needy students and not regular scholarships carrying a definite set of conditions to be met. While the grants made by the institutions in the lower levels were almost entirely in the nature of gifts, those in the higher levels entailed the

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