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rendering of some service to the institution, principally teaching, requiring from a quarter to three-quarters of the student's time.

The grants in the lower value ranges were usually made to undergraduate students. With the increase in value, the number of awards made for graduate study increased and those for undergraduate study correspondingly decreased. In the $300-$349 value range and above there were but 143 grants made to undergraduate students, while at this level and above, 1,359 were made to graduate students. Organizations of different kinds gave larger numbers of grants in the higher ranges than in the lower. This is accounted for by the fact that many of the grants were made by industrial concerns for the conduct of special pieces of research work. Only 31 grants were made by organizations between the $250-$299 range and the $750-$999 range, while at $1,000 and beyond 350 were made. The grants in the lowest ranges, less than $49 to $300, were made by such organizations as alumni, clubs, patriotic societies, etc., for undergraduate study.

The grants made by individuals were rather widely distributed throughout the various ranges of values and were given for both undergraduate and graduate work. The range of values in which the greatest number of grants were made by individuals was $50– $75.

In Table No. 8 are shown the annual awards made from funds provided by the States, by the institutions, by organizations, and by individuals, according to values ranging from less than $49 to more than $2,000.

TABLE 8.-Annual value of scholarships, fellowships, and assistantships

awarded at land-grant colleges in 1927–28

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The grants made by the State, by the institution, by organizations and by individuals for study in special fields and in fields not specifically designated in which 20 or more scholarships were awarded are shown in Table No. 9. The annual value of the grants made by the same donors in the same selected list of fields are given in Table No. 10.

TABLE 9.-Scholarships given by the State, by the institution, by organizations,

and by individuals for study in certain special subjects and in fields not specifically designated

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TABLE 10.—Annual value of grants for study in certain special subjects and in

fields not specifically designated

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Service.—Less than 15 per cent of the scholarships and fellowships given at land-grant institutions in 1927–28 carried the obligation for service, Endeavor was made to classify those for which service was

required along lines of service believed to be most common in institutions of higher learning. Division was made into teaching, research, laboratory, library, clerical, and domestic and janitor services. It was found, however, that some kinds of service required did not lend themeslves to grouping under these designations and it was necessary, therefore, to include some forms of service in a miscellaneous group which should comprise such work as might fall under the statement that "some service is required," "correcting papers," " assistance in the department,” “ work in connection with the project," etc. This miscellaneous class of services proved to be larger than any

of the others. The organizations more frequently required service in exchange for scholarships and fellowships than did any of the other donors, this being due to the fact that the grants made by industrial organizations were usually for the specific purpose of investigating certain problems of peculiar interest to them. A relatively large number of the grants made by the institutions themselves involved the rendering of service. Some of the land-grant institutions find it of advantage to utilize as part-time instructors the services of students in the graduate school in exchange for a financial consideration in the form of fellowships and assistantships ranging in value from about $500 to $1,500. The hours of teaching demanded are usually not so great as to interfere with the progress of the student's work in the graduate school. In the higher ranges of values, from a quarter to three-quarters of the student's time is required. Teaching was given as the most common form of service, 407 scholarships, fellowships, and assistantships involving part-time teaching being held by students in the land-grant colleges in 1927-28. Of these, 391 were given by the institutions.

State scholarships are as a rule free from the requirement of service. In the case of 10 State scholarships only was service required of the holders while attending the institution. Sixty-four scholarships given by the State of Florida to prospective teachers required the holders to teach two years in the State after graduation, and 50 scholarships in medicine given by the State of Vermont required the holders to practice their profession in the State after graduation for the number of years for which the scholarship was used. These two groups of scholarships are included in the table which follows under“ miscellaneous” service. As the donors were probably actuated largely by philanthropic motives or by some such desire as that of perpetuating the memory of relatives or friends, the scholarships and fellowships given by individuals usually imposed no conditions

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of service on the recipients. Only 15 of the 736 grants made by individuals necessitated the performance of any kind of service.

Next to teaching, research was the most frequent service required. Research scholarships and fellowships were, for the most part, of two kinds—those given by the institutions for research work for the institution in connection with the major field of the recipient, and those given by industrial concerns for research in special problems of interest to the various concerns. Only 59 of the scholarships and fellowships given in 1927–28 at the land-grant institutions carried the obligation of laboratory service, and only 3 of them required library service. It is significant that no scholarships were given which involved the rendering of clerical or domestic services. These are services frequently required in the privately endowed institutions in exchange for scholarships.

TABLE 11.Scholarship grants made to students in land-grant colleges in 1927-28,

carrying the obligation of service, contrasted with those made in the same year carrying no such obligation

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The following table shows the number of scholarships in certain specified fields for which some form of service was required, compared to the number in the same fields for which no service was required:

TABLE 12.-Comparison of the number of scholarships given for study in certain fields requiring service with the number in the same fields

requiring no service

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1 Several of the institutions could not separate the scholarships awarded to men from those awarded to women.

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