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Tenure. The value of the greater number of scholarship grants made to students in land-grant institutions in 1927–28 was enhanced by the fact that the holders were privileged to retain the scholarships or fellowships for more than one year. Only 2,259 of the grants were definitely limited to one year; of the remainder, 383 were for two years, 8 for three years, 2,839 for four years, 55 for five years, and the tenure of 3,028 was either not stated or was given as “ not limited.” In many cases it was definitely provided that in order to retain the scholarship beyond a year or some other specified period, it was essential that the student maintain good scholarship. It is assumed that this requirement, although not always stated, is, of necessity, a condition governing the award and retention of practically every scholarship and fellowship. It is also probable that it accounts for the award of such a large proportion of the scholarships reported as given at the land-grant institutions in 1927–28 without a definite tenure.

Of the 1,252 scholarships and fellowships available to men only, 171 carried a tenure of one year, 41 of two years, 5 of three years, 859 of four years, and for 176 no tenure was designated. Of the 311 available to women only, 112 carried a tenure of one year, 1 of two years, 1 of three years, 138 of four years, and for 59 the tenure was unlimited. Of the 3,028 scholarships available to both sexes, 1,976 were for one year, 341 for two years, 2 for three years, 1,842 for four years, 55 for five years, and 2,793 had no specified time limit. The tenure of the scholarship awards made by each donor is shown in Table No. 13.

TABLE 13.-Tenure of scholarship awards made by the States, the institutions,

organizations, and individuals

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Table 14 shows the ranges in money value, the value in relation to tenure, and the value in relation to service of the scholarships, fellowships, and assistantships available and awarded to men, to women, and to both sexes, in land-grant colleges in 1927–28.

Table 14.—Annual value in relation to tenure and service of scholarships, fellowships, and assistantships awarded in land-grant colleges in

1927-28

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Less than $49.
% $50 $74.
$75-899.
$100-$119.
$150-$199.
$200-$249.

855
225

19
369
100
110
40

$300-$349.
$350-$399
$400 $199.
$500 $749.
$750 8999.
$1,000-$1,499.
$1,500-$2,000.
More than $2,000.

45
75
127
175
41
12
3

7 192 152

16. 13

94 15 2 1 1

4
4
36
130

1

20 39 42 11

2

10

71 13 10 7

7

1 1 1

22

1

8

1

1

Total..

2, 259

383

8

2,839

55

3,028

8, 572

186

407

59

3

683

7, 234

1, 252

311

7, 0095, 028

1, 423

2, 121

8, 572

1 Several of the institutions could not separate the scholarships awarded to men from those awarded to women.

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Scholarships and Fellowships Designated for Undergraduate and for

Graduate Study Of the total number of scholarship awards, 6,804, or 79.3 per cent, were for the benefit of undergraduate students; 57.1 per cent of these were available in the freshman year, while 39.8 were available for any of the undergraduate years. A negligible number were designated for the sophomore, junior, and senior years. As has been shown (page 499), a large proportion of the scholarships, although available in the freshman year and in other undergraduate years, may be held for the length of the 4-year course.

The scholarships given under State law are for undergraduate study and are, for the most part, tenable throughout the entire college course. Three thousand and two, or 81 per cent of those given in 1927–28, were available in the freshman year; 5 were available in the junior year; 5 in the senior year; and 694 were available in any of the undergraduate years. A much smaller proportion of the scholarships and fellowships given by the institutions were available in the freshman year. This is accounted for by the fact that it is a somewhat common practice for higher institutions to give scholarships only after the students have proved their ability to carry on profitably college work. A further reason is that of financial need of the students who are already taking courses in the institution. While 70.5 per cent of the scholarships awarded by the institutions themselves for undergraduate work were available in any year of the course, only 10 per cent were available in the freshman year. In contrast with the State grants, almost one-third of the grants made by the institutions were for graduate study. As has been stated, this is due very largely to the employment of graduate students as parttime assistants in connection with work related to their chosen fields.

The greater proportion of the grants made by organizations are given for use in the graduate school. Practically all those given by industrial organizations are for graduate study and research. Only 42, or 6.3 per cent, of the total number given in 1927–28 were available in the freshman year; 184, or 27 per cent, were available in any of the undergraduate years.

Almost one-half of the grants made by individuals were for graduate study. Although a larger number of those given for undergraduate study were for use in the freshman year than for any other college year, the scholarships designated by individuals for use in the upper years exceeded those designated by other agencies for use in the years beyond freshman.

In Table No. 15 comparison is made of the number of grants made for graduate study with the number made for undergraduate study according to the several donors.

TABLE 15.—Comparison of the grants for graduate and for undergraduate study

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Conditions of award.-In a large number of cases the institutions failed to report any definite requirements to be met for the obtaining of a scholarship or fellowship. The passing of a competitive examination more frequently determines the award of State scholarships than does any other factor, except State citizenship. Less frequently award is determined by the student's high-school record. In some States financial need is taken into consideration either as a major condition or in conjunction with scholarship record or other requirements.

Two States, Illinois and South Dakota, condition the award of certain scholarships upon the performance of military service during the World War.

The institutions themselves more often base award of scholar-. ships for undergraduate study on the grade which the student attains in high school. For scholarships for use in the later years of the college course, scholarship as evidenced by the standing of the student in the first years of the course is the outstanding requirement and for scholarship and fellowships for graduate study the commonest requirement is a baccalaureate degree from a standard institution. The institutions also quite frequently consider financial need, character, leadership, and promise. Military service, health, and high-school or college activities are less frequently taken into account. Some scholarships, both those given by institutions and by the other donors, as well, carry with them the fulfillment of a number of these conditions.

As many of the scholarships and fellowships given from funds provided by organizations are for the study of special problems requiring of the student the ability to do research work, scholarship is the most common requirement. Scholarships provided by alumni, clubs, patriotic societies, and other such organizations, being generally for undergraduate study, financial need, and character, leadership,

and promise are more frequently taken into account. The conditions for the award of the scholarships and fellowships given by individuals show a wider range than do the conditions of award of the scholarships and fellowships given by any of the other donors. Individuals apparently consider financial need more often than any other condition. A large number make scholarship a requirement; a less number provide that character, leadership, and promise shall determine award. In a few cases military service, health, and student activities are stated as requirements and in several instances the award is made to persons bearing a certain name.

Each of the donors gave scholarships for students from particular localities—State, region, county, city—and three of them in each case specified the schools or colleges from which the students must come.

The conditions of award specified by the donors for the scholarships and fellowships given at the land-grant institutions in 1927-28 are shown in the following table:

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Requirements of a scholastic and of a personal nature are more frequently specified as conditions of award for the lower value ranges of scholarships given at the land-grant institutions than for the upper ranges. The passing of a competitive examination, for example, was not required for the award of any scholarship or

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