« PrejšnjaNaprej »
The illumination, heating, and ventilation of the engineering buildings are usually reported either as excellent or as satisfactory. Only 11 institutions report the foregoing services as unsatisfactory.
The condition and upkeep of the engineering buildings is reported by 14 institutions as excellent, by 28 as satisfactory, and 7 claim unsatisfactory conditions.
Equipment.-In Table 13 are given statistics concerning the value and condition of engineering equipment, also, of the needs for new equipment. Thus, the value of all engineering equipment on July 1. 1928, was $8,764,913 and equipment valued at $3.243,010 is urgently needed. The table also indicates that only about two-thirds of the equipment is modern, 13 per cent is antiquated or useless, and about 24 per cent is old but usable. When it is recognized that 17.7 per cent of the value of all equipment came through gifts by industry it is evident that the investment in equipment is only about $7,000,000.
Civil engineering -
$2, 843, 051
&8 13. 7 17.5
9.4 21. 5 14 1
$159,00 729, 35 864, 110 191,000
55,000 644, 173
3, 243, 010
Criticism of the name "agricultural college.”—The engineering graduates of the separate land-grant colleges of Colorado, Kansas, North Dakota, Oregon, and South Carolina quite generally were of the opinion that the name “ agricultural college” is detrimental to the engineering alumni of such institutions. No objections were offered to the name “State college of agriculture and mechanic arts” or to “ agricultural and mechanical college," although the desig. nation “State college " seems to be preferred to the other names.
Statements have been made that engineering graduates of “ agricultural colleges are not thought of as graduates of engineering colleges. Experience with the employers of engineering graduates leads to the conclusion that the complaints of engineering alumni of “ agricultural colleges” have considerable justification. Engineer
* Part V of this report, “Alumni and former students," presents survey results witb relerence to occupations, further training, and salaries of graduates and ex-students of engi neering in land-grant colleges.
ing staff members of “ agricultural colleges " also feel that they are at a disadvantage and have to give excuses to their professional friends for teaching engineering at “ agricultural colleges.”
Internal Organization Problems In this section will be recorded present practices with reference to the organization and administration of the engineering activities of land-grant institutions. In 28 institutions the governing boards consider that the most important function of the engineering organization is to give the individual student suitable preparation for a profitable life career. Special services to meet State industrial needs are considered of secondary importance. The organization of the engineering staffs of land-grant institutions has, accordingly, been developed to give major attention to undergraduate engineering education. In the agricultural divisions of these institutions research and extension activities have been given consideration at least coordinate with resident teaching, but engineering has always been dominated by resident teaching, while research and extension have been largely incidental activities.
All States interpret the Morrill Acts and supplementary legislation as carrying a clear obligation to maintain a college of engineering. However, neither the constitution nor the organic laws of the States, except two, determine or prescribe the organization and activities of engineering instruction; also, in only two cases has the State legislation prescribed the engineering research activities of institutions. State legislatures or the governors of States have in eight cases instigated special surveys of land-grant institutions which included the engineering divisions of such institutions. It is customary for special committees of State legislatures to visit and inspect the work of institutions; also, in some cases the governors of States have appointed special visiting committees. However, as far as can be determined, neither the State legislatures nor the governors of States interfere with the internal organization of the engineering divisions of land-grant institutions.
Organization of the major division devoted to engineering. In the 26 institutions which are combined land-grant colleges and universities the term “college” is usually applied to the major division devoted to engineering. In about half of the 20 separate land-grant colleges the term “ division " is used. Six separate land-grant colleges use the term “school.” One designates its work in chemical, civil, electrical, and mechanical engineering as “schools.” In the 5 States where State universities are not maintained but land-grant colleges are provided, 2 use the term department, 1 has a college of engineering, 1 a school of engineering, and the Massachusetts Insti
tute of Technology, which is mainly an engineering college, has no separate division for engineering.
The major engineering division has as its chief executive officer a dean who is responsible to the president of the institution for the administration of the engineering curricula, the quality of instruction, and the proper expenditure of the funds allowed in the engineering budget. In many institutions, although there are notable exceptions, the dean of engineering is also the director of the engineering experiment station and is responsible for the quality of research and for the funds allowed by the institution or by cooperating agencies for this purpose.
The dean of engineering formulates and executes policies with reference to the engineering college; recommends to the president the appointment of engineering staff members upon institutional committees; unifies the activities of the engineering departments and builds up the solidarity of his college of division; presents to the president the needs of the departments of his college; represents the engineering college officially before the public; serves as a medium of communication of all official business of the engineering college with other institutional authorities, students, and constituents; assists in co ordinating the activities of the engineering division with other major divisions of the institution; makes recommendations to the president concerning engineering budgets; certifies the pay roll of the division; approves requisitions for purchase of supplies and equipment; makes annual and other reports on the work of the engineering college; directs publicity for engineering; selects, subject to the approval of the president and trustees, engineering staff members; approves and supervises the publications of research and other reports on engi. neering; supervises department heads; is educational director, and as such conducts activities for the improvement of teaching; oversees relations between engineering faculty and students; directs personnel, placement, and Focational counseling of engineering students; and advises the president concerning the physical plant of the institution.
The main division devoted to engineering is usually made up of the following departments: (a) Departments the heads of which are responsible to the dean of engineering for the administration of the engineering curricula and the technological instruction in civil, electrical, mechanical, chemical, mining, architectural, and other branches of engineering. Architecture, when taught at a land-grant institution, is also usually administered under the dean of engineering. (6) General technical departments which are service departments to the engineering curricula. Such departments usually include instruction in general engineering drawing and descriptive geometry, shop practice, mechanics, and other branches which are common for all engineering students. The heads of such departments also report to the dean of engineering. In some institutions shop practice is taught in the mechanical engineering departments and mechanics in the civil or in the mechanical engineering department. The tendency at present, however, is to teach subjects which are common to all engineering curricula in separate technical service departments. (c) Departments in science and mathematics. In one land-grant university all of the instruction in mathematics, chemistry, and physics
is administered in departments the heads of which report to the dean of engineering. In one institution physics is under the college of engineering, and in another case chemistry is a department of the engineering division. However, the aforementioned cases are exceptions to the general practice where instruction in science and mathematics is administered by the dean of the college of arts and sciences. (d) Connection of the engineering experiment station with the engineering division or college is a plan of organization that should benefit the teaching staff and students by reason of the engineering research with which they thus come in contact. (e) The engineering extension department enables the engineering staff to come into direct contact with the industries of the State and to be of assistance to those who can not be benefited by resident engineering instruction.
It is only by placing engineering teaching, research, and extension under the direction of one responsible head that full cooperation at a minimum cost may be secured.
The major duties of a head of an engineering department are to act as adviser to the dean; to formulate and execute departmental policies; to unify the department and build up departmental solidarity; to improve the standards and quality of teaching; to make budget recommendations for consideration by the dean of engineering; to certify the pay roll of the department; to prepare requisitions for departmental supplies and equipment; to oversee the expenditures of the department; to make annual and other reports to the dean concerning the activities of the department; to adjust the teaching load of the department staff; to assign teachers to classes; to interview delinquent students; to initiate selection of departmental staff members subject to the approval of the dean; to cooperate with the dean and other officers of the college in personnel, placement, and vocational guidance of students; to sponsor honor and professional departmental societies; to make recommendations to the dean concerning changes in curricula; to oversee registration of students; and to approve students' programs of studies. In some institutions the last two are carried on by the dean.
Curricula offered.—Civil, electrical, and mechanical engineering are offered in 47 land-grant colleges, chemical engineering in 32, mining in 19, and architectural in 14.
Engineering faculty.-In the 26 institutions which are combined land-grant colleges and universities, there are separate engineering faculties empowered to deal with most of the problems pertaining to engineering curricula and students. At Cornell University the college of engineering is made up of the three schools of civil, electrical, and mechanical engineering. Each of these schools has a separate faculty.
Twelve separate land-grant colleges reported that they have separate faculty organization. Usually the separate land-grant college engineering faculty has no separate organization or power, and all legislation pertaining to curricula and students is carried on by the general faculty of the institution. While this plan is satisfactory in a very small institution, the self-contained engineering college with its separate faculty should be the plan of organization for institu
tions which have more than 500 engineering students. It is only by this method that unity of purpose and close cooperation of the different branches of engineering may be secured.
Financial relations.—The engineering colleges, like other major divisions of land-grant institutions, usually benefit from funds that come to the institution from the Federal Government, State government, student tuition and fees, interest on endowment, and other sources of income. Exceptions to these are Cornell University, which receives State funds only for agriculture, home economics, and veterinary science, and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, which receives no State funds for any purpose.
Nearly all institutions have definite budgets of expenditures for each of the major divisions. The engineering budget is prepared by the dean of engineering in cooperation with the heads of departments. This budget is then submitted by the dean to the president. In some cases the dean consults the comptroller or other institutional business officer before the final budget is submitted to the president for consideration. After the budget is approved by the president, orders for supplies or capital expenditures are made on requisitions prepared by the head of the department and approved by the dean of engineering. Expensive items of equipment usually require the special approval of the president, as do also traveling expenses outside of the State.
Engineering laboratory, shop, drafting room, field, and other student fees are credited to the engineering college budget in 19 institutions. In the majority of cases, however, all such fees go to the institution to be distributed in connection with other receipts. Earnings for commercial and service tests nearly always go to the engineering college or are added to the budget of the engineering experiment station.
Staff appointments and promotions.—Except for a few special cases in small institutions, where the president handles all of the details, staff appointments are handled as follows: When a vacancy occurs the head of the department concerned initiates the selection of candidates. He then presents his findings to the dean of engineering, who recommends to the president concerning the appointment to be made. The president in all institutions has the authority to appoint subject to the approval of the governing board. In larger institutions the president seldom questions the recommendations of deans concerning staff appointments. It is customary, however, for the dean in the case of important positions, such as full professors, to arrange that the president not only has a complete record of the candidates recommended but also interviews the most promising individuals.