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1455. to one, whose ancestors had formerly enjoyed the "Universis sanctæ matris Ecclesiæ filiis, ad quos præsentes literæ pervenerint, Johannes, permissione divina archiepiscopus Armachanus, Hiberniæ primas, salutem in Domino sempiternam. Vestra noverit universitas, quod, exponente, et supplicante nobis dilecto filio Patricio Mackassaid, Herenaco de Twinha, eo quod ipse ab olim a nostris prædecessoribus (sicuti et progenitores sui nostri fuerunt) Herenachiam de Twinha et terras nostras ibidem quas per sui particulas duximus, præsentibus vulgariter plenius specificandas, consecutus fuisset in iisdem debite inchartatus; de antiqui sui juris confirmatione et nostri nova investitura, quo sic firmius et securius valeat permanere; ex certis licitis causis nos moventibus, ad supplicationem suam hujusmodi annuentes benevole et gratanter, nedum jus omnimodum, quod in antea hucusque, ex concessionibus, ac chartis, et inde secutis in Herenacia, et terris prædictis cum suis pertinentiis fuerit assecutus, in omni sui robore ratum habentes, confirmamus, et præsentis scripti patrocinio communimus; verum etiam, pro modo et forma nostræ ratione investituræ, de consensu et voluntate unanimis decani et nostri capituli Armachani, dedimus, concessimus, et hac præsenti charta nostra confirmamus prædicto Patricio Mackassaid terras nostras de Twynha, sic per sui particulas, hic quo supra vulgariter specificatas, videlicet &c. cum suis pertinentiis et antiquis limitationibus. Habendum et tenendum sibi et hæredibus suis de nobis et successoribus nostris dictas terras cum suis particulis, pertinentiis, et limitationibus antedictis; inde nobis reddendo, et nostris successoribus, annuatim ad festa Omnium Sanctorum et apostolorum Philippi et Jacobi, æquis portionibus quinque marcas et duos solidos sterlingorum bonæ et legalis monetæ Angliæ, cum aliis servitiis et oneribus ordinariis et extraordinariis inde debitis et consuetis, quamdiu dictus Patricius, et hæredes sui, nobis et successoribus nostris, ac officiariis nostris grati obedientes et fideles fuerint, atque dictas terras inhabitaverint, et eas coluerint, ac nulli laico extrinseco colendas tradiderint, et reditus suos, servitia et

onera prædicta pro temporibus debitis fideliter et plene persolverint. Alioqui si in aliquo solutionis debito defecerint in præmissis, liceat nobis et successoribus nostris de dictis terris disponere, concessione prædicta pro aliquo non obstante, jure alterius cujusquam semper salvo. Et dictum Patricium, nostrum Herenacum in ecclesia de Twynha, cum omni inde onere et emolumento, fecimus, constituimus, et in forma præmissa tenore præsentium ordinamus. Nihilominus, quidem, per has nostras concessionem, constitutionem et ordinationem, nobis vel successoribus nostris, de novo introitu ratione novæ concessionis seu investituræ, cum contigerit, pro aliquo nolumus derogare. In cujus rei testimonium, sigillum nostrum, una cum sigillo communi capituli nostri prædicti, præsentibus est appensum. Datum Armachiæ nono die Augusti, A. D. 1455. et nostræ consecrationis, anno duodecimo." By these evidences, and others that might be produced out of the register of Clogher, which for brevity I omit, may easily be collected in what sort, and upon what terms these church-lands have been held in latter days. At the first beginning, I conceive the same order to have been here, which commonly was used in other parts of Christendom, that the tithes and profits of temporal lands appertaining unto every church, were taken up by a common receiver, and distributed into four equal portions, one whereof was allotted to the bishop, another to his clergy, the third upon the reparation of the fabric, and a fourth towards the relief of the poor and strangers. This was the custom of the churches of Italy, as may be seen in the epistles of Simplicius", Gelasius', and Gregoriusk, bishops of Rome, alleged by Gratian'. The same was also received in the churches of France and Germany, as appeareth by the letter of Gregorym the

g Vid. capitular. Car. m. f. 401. a.

Epist. 3. ad Florentinum, Equitium et Severum epos.

i Epist. ad epis Lucaniæ ad Justinum archidiac. ad Clementem et plebem Brundusii.

k Epist. lib. 3. ad Maximian. Syracus. epis.

Caus. 12. quest. 2.

Apud Joh. Aventin. annal. Boiorum, lib. 3. pag. 289. edit. Ingolstad.

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second ad Carolum Martellum, and" ad clerum et plebem Thuringia; by the seventh canon of the council of Worms, et libro septimo capitularium cap. 290. Lastly, Gregory I. making answer to the first question of Austin, bishop of Canterbury: " Mos° sedis apostolica est," saith he," ordinatis episcopis præcepta tradere, ut de omni stipendio quod accedit, quatuor debent fieri portiones: una, viz. episcopo et familiæ, propter hospitalitatem atque susceptionem; alia clero; tertia pauperibus; quarta ecclesiis reparandis." In Spain, the division of the church revenues was made into three parts, as is plain by divers councils held there; and namely the first of Braccara: "Placuit, ut de rebus ecclesiasticis tres æque fiant portiones, id est, una episcopi; alia clericorum, tertia in reparatione, vel in luminariis ecclesiæ." And the council of Tarragona: "Quia tertia pars ex omnibus, per antiquam traditionem, ut accipiatur ab episcopis, novimus statutum." In the present state of our northern churches, if we well mark it, some traces of these ancient orders may be observed. For first in the canons which have been cited, this may be noted, that in these days the parishioners were not tied to the reparation of their churches; but the charge thereof was to be defrayed out of the revenues of the Church. "Ex omnibus istis capitulis collige," saith the gloss upon the decrees, "laicos non esse compellendos ad reparationem fabricæ, sed tantum clericos." Now this old order, which otherwhere is grown out of use, remaineth still in the north. "We find," say the jurors of the Cavan, "that the parson, vicar and erenach, are to repair and maintain their proper parish church at their own charge, out of their benefices and the Termon land, unto which work the parishioners did oftentimes voluntarily give their benevolence." Again, by the same canons the bishop was to

n Tom. 3. conciliorum, pag. 179. edit. Binii.
Bedæ eccles. hist. lib. 1. cap. 27.

P Cap. 25.

Tom. 2. concil. pag. 350. can. 8. edit. Binii. Vide concil. Emeritens. tom. 2. pag. 1182. Toletan. 4. can. 32. et 9. can. 5. tom. 3. pag. 163. b.

r Joh. Semeca in 12. quæst. 2. cap. 4.

have "vel quartam, vel tertiam, secundum locorum diversitates," as Gratian" noteth. And so, according to the diversity of places, the bishop enjoyeth his fourth in Connaught, and in the diocese of Clogher, as likewise in the diocese of Derry and Raphoe his third part, which also still retaineth the name of quarta and tertia episcopalis. The taking up of the collections, and distribution of the church profits into their several portions, was in those days the special charge of the archidiaconus, as may appear by the epistle of Gregory" ad Honoratum archidiaconum Salonitanum; and of Isidorex ad Lindifredum Cordubensem episcopum, thus describing the office of ant archdeacon: "Collectam pecuniam de communione ipse accipit, et episcopo defert, et clericis proprias partes idem distribuit." The archdeacon to this day is termed by the Irish, Єjnejnneach, as before I have declared; and we find that this was one office of our Herenach, to be the bishop's collector, as in the inquisition for the county of Donegal is particularly set down of O'Morreeson, the Herenach of the parish of Clonemanny, "That he was anciently accustomed to collect all the bishop's duties throughout the whole barony of Enishowen.”

Now by the "canonica dispositio quartarum" as Gregory calleth it, the bishop being to have his fourth book of the spiritual and temporal profits of the church in Clogher, he receiveth accordingly the fourth part of the tithes of such parishes as are within that diocese. Besides this, every Herenach payeth unto him a certain yearly rent out of the Termon lands belonging unto his church, which if I should guess to have been in consideration of the quarta due unto the bishop out of the temporal possessions of that church, I suppose my conjecture would be found to have in it more probability and conformity to the ancient church government, than that which by some of the northern jurors, men not very skilful in matters

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of such antiquity, was delivered, viz. that when the temporal lords in their several wars, and upon other occasions, began to charge and tax the Termon lands with divers exactions and impositions, the Corbes and Herenachs fled unto the bishop of the diocese wherein they lived, and besought his protection against the wrongs and injuries of the temporal lords, and therefore voluntarily gave unto the bishop a rent or pension out of their land." But to let this pass. The bishop's portion being deducted in such sort as hath been shewed, there should remain a fourth both of the tithes and of the temporalities to be allowed unto the ministers that attended the cure, another fourth to be spent in reparations and keeping up of the church, and a fourth likewise pauperibus et peregrinis fideliter eroganda, as the canons require. When therefore the receiving of the church goods into a common hand, and the sharing of them into their several portions began to be abused, he which was the economus carving, as it is like, very favourably for himself, or upon some other respect was disused, and every one was willing to be the steward of his own portion, the presbyteri, that is, the parson and vicar, and the archidiaconus, (or Herenach,) may be thought to have grown to this composition; the Herenach charged himself with the reparation of two thirds of the fabric, taking upon him the care of the lower part or body of the church, the parson and vicar undertook the charge of the other third part. There being to divide betwixt them the three quarters of the church goods which remained above the bishop's allowance; for more quiet and ease, the presbyteri took wholly unto themselves the three quarters of the tithes, two whereof fell into the parson's lots, and one to the vicar's, without challenging any benefit in the temporal profits, except some small quantity of glebe land they were to dwell on; the archidiaconus or Herenach for keeping of hospitality, and en

a See the office of the Cavan.

b Gelas. epist. ad Clem. et pleb. Brundusii apud Gratianum, 12. quæst. 2. cap. Concesso. Greg. 11. in epist. ad Clem. et pleb. Thuringia, concil. Worm. can. 7. et 47.

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