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Right Expression is a three-fold activity. It manifests a plan, a purpose and an ability.

Right Expression is a thought-process and as such it manifests the thought's trinity. The thought's trinity is made up of the following functions:

The Reflective (intellectual) which conceives and plans. The Affective (volitional) which chooses and purposes. The Effective (vital) which carries the purpose to fulfillment. These functions are a trinity because each one depends on the other two for existence and together they form a complete whole. For the sake of brevity and convenience let us agree upon short names for these three functions. Let us call the reflective function the Mental, the affective, the Moral and the effective, the Vital. In every expression all three are active, one of them dominant and the other two subordinate.

In all right Expression the mental factor manifests its presence in form, outline, limit, clarity (Plan); the moral factor in quality, texture, harmony, melody, unfoldment in sequence (Purpose); and the vital factor in extension, vividness, power (Ability).

In our special field of expression, the Spoken Word, it is the office of the "Mental" factor to analyze, outline, define, explain, clarify, enlighten and so forth. This is expressed through proper emphasis, clear articulation, right inflections

and pauses, definiteness and deliberateness of utterance and proper subordinations.

It is the office of the "Moral" factor to help, inspire, win, comfort. This softens the emphases, curves the inflections, sweetens the quality of the tone and gives melody to the utterance.

It is the office of the "Vital" factor to awaken, arouse, move, vivify. This is expressed in fulness of tone, enlargement of emphasis, lengthening of inflection, increase of range and quickening of rate.

Let it be remembered that the intelligence proves its presence in the expression by means of form and outline, which in the Spoken Word mean emphasis, inflection, pause and subordination. The form must never be destroyed by the activity of either of the other two factors. If this be done the expression becomes unintelligent. The dominance of emotion will soften the emphases and curve the inflections, but it must not destroy them. The dominance of vitality will extend the form or make it more vivid, with stronger light and shade, but must not change its nature.

Always remember that true vitality is vitality of thought. Do not mistake energy of muscle or nervous excitement for vitality. Do not mistake hardness or sharpness of voice for definiteness and clearness. Do not mistake loudness and harshness for fulness and power. Do not mistake sensation for thought.

It is necessary for the proper development of the student in interpretative work that his voice and body be thoroughly trained, freed from constriction and inertia and rendered flexible and obedient to governing mind.



These exercises are for the purpose of arousing and developing in the student's mind that particular factor of the thought's trinity which is dominant in the exercise.

In Chapter I the exercises have the vital factor dominant and the mental and moral subordinate.

In Chapter II the mental factor is dominant and the other two subordinate.

In Chapter III the moral factor is dominant and the other two subordinate.




Examples for Practice.

1. "Ho! strike the flag-staff deep, Sir Knight— ho!
scatter flowers, fair maids:

Ho! gunners, fire a loud salute-ho! gallants,
draw your blades."

2. "Awake, Sir King, the gates unspar! Rise up and ride both fast and far!

The sea flows over bolt and bar."

3. "Sea-king's daughter from over the sea, Alexandra! Saxon and Norman and Dane are we,

But all of us Danes in our welcome of thee,



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'Robert of Sicily, brother of Pope Urbane,
And Volmond, emperor of Allemaine,
Apparelled in magnificent attire,

With retinue of many a knight and squire,
On St. John's eve at vespers proudly sat,
And heard the priest chant the Magnificat."

5. Worcester.

Those same noble Scots

I'll keep them all;

That are your prisoners,


By heaven, he shall not have a Scot of them;
No, if a Scot would save his soul, he shall not:
I'll keep them, by this hand.


You start away,

And lend no ear unto my purposes.

Those prisoners you shall keep.


Nay, I will; that's flat:

He said he would not ransom Mortimer;
Forbade my tongue to speak of Mortimer;
But I will find him when he lies asleep,
And in his ear I'll holla



I'll have a starling shall be taught to speak
Nothing but Mortimer, and give it him,

To keep his anger still in motion.

6. "Then the master,

With a gesture of command,
Waved his hand;

And at the word,

Loud and sudden there was heard

All around them and below

The sound of hammers, blow on blow,

Knocking away the shores and spurs.
And see! she stirs!

She starts,

she moves,

she seems to feel

The thrill of life along her keel,

And, spurning with her foot the ground,
With one exulting, joyous bound,

She leaps into the ocean's arms!"

7. "Under his spurning feet, the road
Like an arrowy Alpine river flowed,
And the landscape sped away behind,
Like an ocean flying before the wind."

8. "The wind, one morning sprang up from sleep, Saying, 'Now for a frolic! now for a leap! Now for a madcap galloping chase!

I'll make a commotion in every place!'"

9. "O hark! O hear! how thin and clear,
And thinner, clearer, farther going!
O sweet and far, from cliff and scar,
The horns of Elfland faintly blowing!"

10. "It is done!

Clang of bell and roar of gun!
Send the tidings up and down.

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