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tution and the painting in three other instances. It is obvious that the college occupies a position of advantage when it is justified in maintaining an upkeep and repair organization sufficient in size, personnel, and equipment to handle new construction work. Where the bids on new buildings by outside contractors are high, the institution may utilize its own division in erecting them. In 14 instances the institution, through its repair and upkeep division, submits estimates on the cost of all new buildings in competition with outside firms.

A systematic procedure should be adopted for the conduct of the work of the repair upkeep division if economic and business practices are to be followed. One of the first essentials is that the division prepare an estimate of the actual cost prior to the issuance of an order for repair work. Thirty-six institutions report that estimates are prepared on all repair jobs before authority is given for their performance, while in the other seven no estimates whatever are made. There is a difference in the basis upon which the estimates are prepared. In 28 cases they are made on the actual cost basis and in the other 9 instances allowances for overhead are also included in the estimates. The officers to whom the estimates are submitted differ in the various institutions submitting returns.

At 5 institutions the estimates are submitted to the president, at 9 to the superintendent of buildings and grounds, at 14 to the chief business officer, at 6 to the deans or department heads, at 3 to the purchasing agent, at 1 to the supervising architect, and at 1 to the committee on buildings and grounds. Final authority to issue the order for the divis.on to proceed with the repair work is vested in the president in 13 institutions, the chief business otlicer in 17, the resident architect in 2, the buildings and grounds committee in 3, the superintendent of buildings and grounds in 2, the head of the department in 1, and the board of trustees in 1.

It is evident that dissimilarity exists in the administrative procedure among the different institutions in the handling of estimates and the issuance of orders for repair work. The upkeep of the physical plant is clearly a part of the responsibilities of the business organization and both authority and control over the operations of the division should, therefore, be concentrated in the chief business officer. A lack of proper supervision of the repair and upkeep work was found in 12 institutions where craftsmen are permitted to do repairing without a specific work order from the superintendent in charge.

Service of Utilities

In the management of the physical plant provision must be made for services, such as heat, light, and power. Because of the heavy expense involved in the furnishing of utilities of this type, the cost should be reduced to the minimum and an economical system adopted for its operation.

As the buildings of the land-grant colleges are ordinarily located on a single campus and are grouped in close proximity to each other, the most efficacious method is the establishment of a central power plant. If properly equipped with boilers, engines, motors, and dynamos, this plant should be capable of providing the necessary heat, light, and power to meet all the needs of the institutions. Of the 43 institutions submitting reports, it is found that 38 have established central power plants, while 5 others do not have such plants. In the latter cases, the buildings are heated individually, while light and power are purchased from outside sources. As the great majority of the institutions have central power plants the discussion will be confined to them.

Due to the inadequacy of data, difficulty was encountered in ascertaining the line of administrative control over the central power plant in the different institutions, although in most cases it is under the general supervision of either the chief business officer or the superintendent of buildings and grounds. Accurate information, however, was obtained on the officer in immediate charge of the plant. At 14 a chief engineer is the responsible head, at 12 a supervisor or foreman, at 2 the resident or supervising architect, at 1 the head of the mechanical engineering department, and at 9 the superintendent of buildings and grounds exercises personal supervision. The personnel making up the organization for the operation of the plant includes engineers, firemen, stokers, and other laborers, and varies according to the amount of equipment.

The number of employees in 1 institution ranges between 25 and 30, in 2 between 20 and 25, in 6 between 15 and 20, in 6 between 10 and 15, in 13 between 5 and 10, and in 9 fewer than 5. Data collected for the year 1928 discloses that the pay roll of wages and salaries paid the employees in 1 institution amounted to $14,000, in 2 from $30,000 to $35,000, in 2 from $25,000 to $30,000, in 2 from $20,000 to $25,000, in 4 from $15,000 to $20,000, in 4 from $10,000 to $15,000, in 8 from $5,000 to $10,000, and in 4 less than $5,000.

A further conception of the operation of the central power plants in the different colleges is secured from records of the consumption of fuel in the course of a single year. The returns show that for the year 1928 a total of 388,200 tons of coal, 14,344 barrels of oil, and 84,804,000 cubic feet of natural gas were consumed by the plants of the 38 institutions. Whether the college is located in a warm or cold climate is a decisive factor in determining the amount of fuel used. There was one institution where the consumption of coal amounted to 42,000 tons while in the case of another but 400 tons were necessary to operate its power plant.

The amount of coal used in 1 college varied from 35,000 to 40,000 tons. in 2 from 30,000 to 35,000, in 1 from 25,000 to 30.000, in 2 from 20,000 to 25,000. in 1 from 15.000 to 20.000, in 5 from 10.000 to 15,000, in 9 from 5,000 to 10,000), While in 12 cases less than 5,000 tons were consumed.

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Three institutions reported that their plants were operated with fuel oil instead of coal, the consumption being 7,500 barrels in 1, 6,600 barrels in a second, and 244 barrels in a third. Only one college, Oklahoma Agricultural and Mechanical College, used natural gas, 84,804,000 cubic feet being consumed.

The principal functions of the central power plants are to furnish heat and electric current for light and power. In the manufacture of electric current it is found that heat is a by-product of a majority of the college plants while in others the production of heat is the main function. The basis upon which the plants are operated is shown in the proportion of live steam used for heating purposes. Of the 32 institutions reporting on the point, the returns indicate that there are 13 where 100 per cent of the steam for heating consists of live steam. In the plants of the remaining institutions heat is provided both by live and exhaust steam.

There are 4 plants where 90 per cent of the steam used for heating is live steam and 10 per cent exhaust steam, 2 where 80 per cent is live steam and 20 per cent exhaust steam, 2 where 70 per cent is live steam and 30 per cent exhaust steam, 4 where 60 per cent is live steam and 40 per cent exhaust steam, and 7 where 50 per cent is live steam and 50 per cent exhaust steam. In 1 college the heat consists of 10 per cent live steam and 90 per cent exhaust steam manufactured by the plant while in another steam for heating is made up of 1 per cent live and 99 per cent exhaust.

The size of the heating systems for which the central power plants supply heat is shown in the number of square feet of direct radiation contained in them. Three of the land-grant colleges have immense systems, the steam radiation amounting to as high as 500,000 to 550,000 square feet. Another institution reports 406,000 square feet of steam radiation and a fifth 312,000 feet.

There are 3 colleges, the heating systems of which contain from 200,000 to 225,000 square feet of steam radiation, 3 between 175.000 and 200,000 square feet, 1 between 150,000 and 175,000 square feet, 3 between 125,000 and 150,000 square feet, 1 between 100,000 and 125,000 square feet, 8 between 75,000 and 100,000 square feet, 7 between 50.000 and 75,000 square feet, and 3 between 25,000 and 50,000 square feet. According to the returns of 4 colleges their heating systems include from 26,000 to 272,000 square feet of hot water radiation in addition to steam radiation.

Expense of operating the plants is at considerable variance. This is indicated by the information furnished on the cost of evaporating 1,000 pounds of steam in the various institutions. Due to the fact that a number of colleges included overhead in their computation while others made their calculation on a basis of fuel and labor expense only, the figures presented are not altogether comparable, but they provide nevertheless a fairly satisfactory standard of comparison. The highest cost of evaporating 1,000 pounds of steam in any single institution was 90 cents and the lowest was 20 cents with an average for the 26 institutions submitting returns of 38 cents.

In 2 cases the cost ranged from 55 to 60 cents, in 3 from 50 to 55 cents, in 2 from 45 to 50 cents, in 1 from 40 to 45 cents, in 3 from 35 to 40 cents, in 8 from 30 to 35 cents, in 4 from 25 to 30 cents, and in 2 from 20 to 25 cents.

Where the cost of evaporating 1,000 pounds of steam exceeds the average, it would appear advisable for the head of the physical plant department to conduct an inquiry for the purpose of ascertaining the cause and with a view of reducing the operating expense, if possible. The production of the power plants of 8 institutions is so large that they are enabled to sell their surplus service. In 24 institutions all or part of the service is purchased from outside sources.

New Construction

To meet the increasing needs for additional space, State appropriations are made regularly or income from mill-tax levies is available for the erection of new buildings in the case of a number of the institutions. In others a comprehensive program of new construction has been adopted extending over a period of years. Building operations, therefore, are conducted on an extensive scale throughout the land-grant college group and procedure for their control and administration has become an important responsibility.

An examination of the reports shows that the construction of new buildings and additions to the physical plants of 12 institutions is under the full or partial control of State agencies, while in 31 the work is done under the jurisdiction of the governing boards. There are also nine institutions where the State control extends to major repairs and remodeling of the old plant in addition to all new construction. The exercise of control by State agencies over new construction is generally disadvantageous, due to the lack of familiarity of State officials with the particular types of buildings essential to higher educational institutions. Such an arrangement also results in long-distance administration and supervision, complicated procedure, and frequently in conflict of authority. Continuity in design is also made more difficult because of changing administrations. On the other hand, where physical plant extensions are under the direct control of the governing bodies, responsibility is centralized and localized in the constituted authorities of the institutions who are closely in touch and vitally interested in the proper conduct of the work, and who are more permanent in tenure.

Funds for the erection of new structures in the great majority of the land-grant colleges are obtained through specific appropriations of the State legislatures, through the segregation for building purposes of a portion of their incomes from mill-tax levies and through special taxes in a few instances. There are some institutions, however, that are authorized to construct new buildings by bond issues. A particular inquiry was conducted into the question, the results of which showed that all types of buildings may be constructed by bond issues by five institutions, only dormitories or resident halls by three, and only revenue-producing buildings by four. A general statute covers the authorization in four States and special legislation is necessary authorizing the construction of each individual building in three. Authority must be granted by a special election in one State.

The procedure followed and the machinery set up for the administration and supervision of physical plant improvements differ widely in the various institutions. For this reason a detailed study is necessary to obtain an adequate conception of the lines of authority and responsibility. The first step in new construction is to secure architectural services. According to the reports, such seryices are obtained through the State architect at 4 institutions, through the regular university architect at 5, through an architect employed by the State agency at 3, and through an architect employed by the governing board at 24. Both the State and university architect provide the services in three other cases, the State architect and the architect employed by the governing board in three, and the university architect and the architect employed by the governing board in three. The basis of compensation for architectural service varies in the several institutions. There are 31 where the architect is paid on a per cent of cost basis, 7 where he is compensated on a direct salary basis, and 3 where he is remunerated on a contract basis. That a widely varying number of officials exercise final authority over the architects employed to handle physical plant extensions is indicated by the returns. In 13 institutions the architect is responsible to the governing board, in 6 jointly to the governing board and the president, in 13 to the president only, in 4 to the chief business officer, in 2 to the institutional committee on physical plant and equipment, in 1 to the dean of engineering, in 1 to a State commission, in 1 to the State board of agriculture, and in 1 to a person appointed by the board of trustees.

Due to the differences in the terms and provisions of the laws covering the letting of contracts for public improvements in the different States, the procedure for securing, receiving, and opening bids varies considerably. Bids are secured upon invitation in 5 of the institutions, by formal advertisement in 27, and both by invitation and formal advertisement in 8 others. In cases where the colleges advertise for bids, insertions covering a period of one month are required at 13, of three weeks at 8, of two weeks at 7, and of one week or less at 3. There is one institution which constructs all of its own buildings, no bids being asked nor contracts awarded. A

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