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fourth, reports that this amount of student help is too large for satisfactory results. Many other institutions, however, use this form of service to a very limited extent, one-twentieth in some instances. Satisfactory student assistants can ordinarily be obtained readily and are capable of doing much of the routine work. Furthermore, many librarians found their life work as a result of their employment as student assistants in college libraries. This employment offers a valuable opportunity to secure desirable recruits for librarianship.

It is recommended that in most institutions equal attention be given to the further development of both personnel and books. It is also recommended that librarians employing comparatively little student help give consideration to the use of this form of service.

Summary The one outstanding fact in the financial support of libraries of land-grant institutions, which requires emphasis to the exclusion of all others, is the inadequate financial support of the group as a whole.

More than 50 per cent of the libraries in the land-grant college group are receiving less than half the funds deemed necessary for adequate service, some less than one-fourth.

The lack of funds in these institutions is due directly to the failure of administrators to allot for library purposes the same proportion of institutional funds which is allotted in institutions with satisfactory library services. Until sufficient funds are allotted the library service in most land-grant institutions will remain inadequate for instructional and research needs. If the many authorities, a few of whom have been quoted, are correct in their statement of the dependence of adequate instruction and research upon library service, the value of the instruction and research in many land-grant institutions, as compared with other institutions, is open to serious question, as are the instruction and research in the group as a whole as compared with the group of 14 New England colleges or the group of 14 colleges and universities, surveyed by Doctor Works.

Chapter IX.-General Conclusions

This study has been based on the conception, stated repeatedly by leading educators and research workers, that an effective library is essential for the instructional and investigational work of every institution of higher education. This conception is no longer considered open to question. The statement in the conclusion of Doctor Rosenlof's study of libraries of teacher-training institutions applies with equal force to land-grant institutions.

It has not been thought within the province of this study to challenge the place of the library in its relation to the newer theories and conceptions of educational philosophy or of the educative process. The newer methods of teaching and learning, the passing of the textbook as the only source of information, and the coming of the new approaches to learning through the avenues of many supplementary reference materials have been accepted as prima facie evidences of a new day and a new responsibility in the field of library service.“

The five requirements for good library service have been stated in the introduction to this study, as follows: (1) Adequate book collections; (2) suitable buildings and equipment; (3) satisfactory relationships of library to institutional administration and to faculty; (4) competent and sufficient library personnel; and (5) adequate financial support.

As a preliminary to a study of the extent to which these requirements are met by land-grant institutions attention was also given to the use at present made of libraries. The following summary of recommendations under these headings is offered as a means for the improvement of service of libraries of land-grant institutions.

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Summary of Recommendations Use of libraries.—(1) More attention should be given to the individual reader in order to see that he obtains needed material.

(2) Librarians should make additional studies, statistically and otherwise, of the use of their libraries, and especially of failures of students and faculty to obtain adequate service.

(3) Further studies by librarians are also needed to ascertain factors which affect present development and should direct future growth.

Library facilities of teacher-training institutions, 1929, p. 150.

48 Rosenlof, G. W.

Books and periodicals.-(1) The selection of books should be organized; all instructors should see that the needed material in their fields is available. The final responsibility should be placed upon the librarian.

(2) Inasmuch as it has been found that institutions with wellused libraries are expending not less than $10 per student for books, periodicals, and binding, this amount is suggested as a tentative standard. This need is shown by the pitiful condition of the book collections in more than one-half of the land-grant institutions.

Buildings.—(1) Institutions which have not erected library buildings within the past 10 years should make a careful study to determine if their present buildings are fully conducive to the satisfactory use of books.

(2) In the erection of buildings in the future much more attention should be given to the use to be made of the building. Adequate provision should be made for future growth of the library and enlargement of the building.

Administrative control. The control of all libraries on the campus should be placed directly upon the librarian, who should be responsible only to the president for their administration. All purchases of library books and all appointments of library assistants should be made only upon his recommendation.

Personnel.-(1) The library staffs of many land-grant institutions should be enlarged. The number of persons found necessary by well-used libraries is 5 for the first 500 students, 10 for the first 1,000, and 4 additional for each additional 500 students. Part-time assistants are to be included and are to be figured on the basis given in this report.

(2) For all future appointments to positions on the professional staff of the library a college degree and one year of library school should be required. In addition, adequate experience in scholarly, well-used libraries is recommended for all positions except those of junior assistants. More extensive educational and professional qualifications should be required for the higher positions.

(3) Salaries of librarians should correspond with the average salary paid academic deans or the salaries paid the most highly paid group of full professors. The salaries of heads of library departments should correspond with the salaries of assistant or associate professors.

(4) Many library staffs need reorganization. The present memhers of those staffs should be given positions for which they are qualified; new members should be appointed at salaries based upon the requirements of the positions and the qualifications of the appointee.

(5) There is need of a clear understanding of the duties of professional library assistants and a distinction between the duties of the professional and clerical staffs.

Financial support.-In more than three-fourths of the land-grant institutions much increased financial support is needed. In the group of libraries with the least use and smallest support the library budget should be increased to about four times the present amount. Institutions which are allotting less than 4 per cent of their funds for library purposes or which are spending less than $20 per student should carefully examine the use made of their libraries, the adequacy of the book collections, and the efficiency of the personnel as compared with libraries with larger ratios of expenditures.

Need for Better Understanding The failure of administrators to allot for their libraries a sufficient amount to enable the library to function effectively may be caused by: (1) A lack of knowledge of what constitutes adequate library facilities. (It is hoped that the recommendations given in this survey will contribute to a knowledge of the facilities needed for good library service.) (2) A failure fully to appreciate the

2 place of the library in the educational system.

The relation of the library to the educational system has been emphasized. As a final summary, it is desirable to give an additional statement of the necessity for adequate library service if the research and instructional activities of the land-grant institution are in any way to approach desired objectives.

Klauder and Wise, from the standpoint of the library building, make an excellent statement of the library's needs which is applicable not only to the building but to all elements in the development of libraries.

The library is the intellectual central power plant of the college or university. It is related to all departments and it must keep pace with all departments in supplying to each branch of study the books and references needed. Hence the library must be sensitive to the expansion of any teaching unit of the institution. If a new department is added, there must be a corresponding increase in the library's volumes; and this means, if there is not space for the addition of new stacks within the original building, an increase in the size of the structure itself. Thus it is seen that the comparison of the library with the central heating plant is not merely figurative, for the heating plant must increase its service as soon as a new building with its additional "load" is erected."

This statement presupposes that the power plant” is sufficient for the original load. This implication, however, does not hold in many libraries of land-grant institutions.

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49 College architecture in America, 1929, p. 170.

PART IX.-AGRICULTURE

Chapter I.-Introduction

Legislative provision for colleges of agriculture had been made in a number of States before the land-grant college bill was passed in 1862. This was the case in Michigan (February 12, 1855); Pennsylvania (April 13, 1854), amended (February 23, 1855); and in Maryland (March 6, 1856), amended 1858. Pursuant to such legislation, agricultural colleges were established and opened their doors for enrollment in Michigan, May 11, 1857; in Pennsylvania, February 16, 1859; and in Maryland, September, 1859. Definite movements toward the establishment of colleges in which agriculture was to be taught were on foot in New York in 1853, in Ohio in 1854, and in some other States during the early fifties, and in some instances preliminary steps for their organization had been taken. However, the land-grant act crystallized the thinking of the leaders of the time as to the type of education that had most promise for the welfare of the industrial classes, of agriculture as an industry, and of society as a whole.

It is clear from the land-grant act itself and from interpretations placed upon it by Mr. Morrill that the emphasis in education by the institutions under this act should be on science that might be applied in practical life and not on the humanities which had been emphasized in the colleges up to that time. It was not the thought that the humanities should be discarded or neglected, but that the sciences relating to the affairs of every day should receive major attention and that the scientific attitude should be encouraged.

Further, the land-grant act made it clear that in the future education was not to be for the well-to-do classes alone. The agricultural and industrial classes were to have an equal opportunity for higher education. That science should be used as the basis of this new education and that it should be made so democratic that everyone might have an opportunity to attend a college, constituted a marked departure from the accepted conception of higher education.

Educators generally were contemptuous of the land-grant college movement and of science as a medium of educational value. They were entirely unsympathetic with the idea of universal education or

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