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report that there is no tendency in this direction, other evidence indicates that this field needs careful consideration and study in every institution.
Within the agricultural division itself there are many places where duplication may occur, as in animal nutrition, plant and animal breeding, crops and soils, and in management courses. Through close cooperation between departments as reported by 36 institu: tions, supplemented by course syllabi in eight, and working back from curricula to courses rather than from courses to curricula in seven, and by the careful attention given to this matter on the part of department heads and deans of agriculture, it is the judgment of 38 institutions that there is no undue duplication in courses within the agricultural unit. Only three report that such duplication exists. It is probable, however, that if a careful study of this matter were made by individuals or committees in the various institutions, a good many instances of excessive overlapping would be found, with consequent opportunity for correction and improvement.
Certain subjects required in agricultural curricula and where they are taught.-A number of subjects required in the curricula for students in undergraduate agriculture may be offered in one or more than one of two or three major divisions of the institution. These subjects and where they are taught are indicated in Table 9. The emphasis given these subjects, the number of students selecting them, administrative convenience, personnel, and costs, are some of the factors which help to determine in which departments or major divisions they are placed. Their position in the organization often influences the manner in which they are taught and their subjectmatter content. When, for instance, agricultural chemistry is given by the college of agriculture, it is entirely likely that the teaching staff is selected partly on the basis of its appreciation and understanding of the relations between so-called pure chemistry and chemistry applied to agriculture and that these relations are made more clear in the classroom and laboratory than if the subject is given in a department of chemistry in which the purpose may be to develop chemists and chemical engineers. On the other hand, when chemistry is taught in the agricultural division it may be that the broader aspects of the subject are not sufficiently emphasized and that the relation of agricultural chemistry to industry is not brought out as clearly as when taught in a division that serves students in a number of allied fields. Careful detailed study should be made upon a comparative basis in order to determine the facts with reference to these matters and the effects of different practices upon the subsequent work of students.
TABLE 9.-Subjects required in agricultural curricula and major divisions in
which they are taught
15 in part only, the remainder in commerce, business or science, and arts.
In school of physics in 1 institution and physics and chemistry in another. 4 2 in part only.
In this connection it is interesting to note that agricultural chemistry is taught as a part of the work of the college of agriculture in 19 institutions, in the arts and sciences division in 23, and in a school of chemistry in 3. The majority of institutions apparently feel that the work given in chemistry when taught in other divisions than agriculture is satisfactory for agricultural students.
Agricultural engineering is a part of the work of the college of agriculture in 38 institutions and of engineering colleges in 6. Where it is taught in the college of agriculture, the phases of engineering which deal with its application to farm structures, to drainage, to farm machinery, to equipment of all kinds, and to use of power on the farm are more likely to be stressed than when it is taught by the staff of the college of engineering where basic principles of design and construction are emphasized.
The work in agricultural education is handled as a part of the work of the college of agriculture in 22 institutions, in the school of education in 15, and in arts and sciences in 4. Where it is in the college of agriculture the teaching personnel is more likely to be selected because of training in agriculture and because of practical agricultural experience than if selected by the school of education. As a result the student will feel just as much at home in the agricultural education classes as he will, for instance, in a class in agronomy. He is more likely to select vocational educational subjects as a part of his curriculum where they are given in the college of agriculture than in the school of education. Undoubtedly these are some of the reasons why agricultural education is made a part of the work of the college of agriculture in the majority of institutions. On the other hand, such emphasis has sometimes resulted in the employment of teachers poorly trained in education. When the staff in agricultural education is a part of the school of education rather than of agriculture, the professional attitude is encouraged. Membership in both faculties is a device that has been quite generally overlooked. It would seem to have advantages.
The fact that agricultural economics and marketing in 35 and 34 institutions, respectively, are a part of the regular work in the college of agriculture and of other colleges or divisions in 10 and 12 institutions, is significant of the stress placed upon these subjects in agricultural instruction in recent years. As indicated elsewhere in 1.his report, they are rapidly becoming as much a part of the curricula in agriculture as agronomy or animal husbandry.
That botany, zoology, and physics should be handled oftener in the division of arts and sciences than in the college of agriculture is to be expected. These subjects constitute a large and important part of a number of the curricula and may be taken to advantage in that college by the agricultural student. Genetics, which is stressed particularly in plant and animal breeding, fits into the work of the colleges of agriculture and is given there by 35 institutions out of 48. Service courses in this subject for those in other divisions are offered by the agricultural teaching staff.
It should not be overlooked that in some institutions it is not desirable or practicable to segregate entirely all applied courses from the corresponding departments in arts and sciences or in engineering, as the number of students enrolled may be too small to justify the procedure from the standpoint of expense. However, when the student enrollment is sufficient, the expense may be no greater if the applied work is segregated from the basic work. Laboratories and equipment as well as teachers have to be provided in any case. The situation with reference to the place in the organization of most of the subjects discussed is deserving of careful study and review in every institution. The guiding principle at all times should be the best service possible to all students, commensurate with the funds available, whether such students are in agriculture, engineering, home economics, arts and sciences, or in some other major division of the institution.
Farm Practice Requirements In many institutions there is a considerable enrollment of students in agriculture who have had no farm experience. Since it is felt that all students who receive an agricultural degree should be more familiar with farm practice than is possible through the laboratory work incidental to the courses taken, and since a large amount of practice is not logically a part of a course of college grade, many institutions require practical experience away from the college before the agricultural degree is granted. Twenty-six of 45 institutions require additional experience to that received in college courses. Only in 14 of these, however, is it required of all students in agriculture and only in 6 is the work supposed to be an integral part of the regular courses in the curricula.
Those who major in botany or plant pathology, in agricultural chemistry, in entomology, in forestry, in landscape art, and in floriculture, and in certain cases students from foreign countries generally are exempt from the experience requirement. In five institutions where certain students are not required to have farm experience they must acquire experience in other work appropriate to the specialty which they are studying. Students in forestry are often required to spend one or more summers in practical forestry with the forestry service of the State or Federal Government or with logging and lumber companies. Students in floriculture and landscape gardening may be required to take work in growing of flowers and ornamentals under glass, or in the park service of cities. Only in a few instances is this practical work provided for at the institutions themselves.
Where practical experience is required it is expected that it be completed before the beginning of the junior year in 1 institution, before the beginning of the senior year in 17, and any time before graduation in the others. The practice work requirement is administered by the office of the dean of agriculture in 10 institutions, by the departments involved in 10, and by other arrangements in the remainder. Supervision in the nature of occasional visits by staff members upon students doing practice work is provided by 3 institutions. Detailed reports of practice work done is required from the students in 15 institutions and in 6 of these cases also from the employer. In 4 instances reports from the employer alone are requested. Practice work equivalent to at least 3 months is required in 9 institutions, 6 months in 10, and 1 year in 3. None have a requirement of more than 1 year. The kind of practice work to be done is determined in various ways. In 4 institutions this is the duty of a special officer in charge, of a faculty committee in 4, and of the departments concerned in 11.
For those without experience, practice work in addition to that which may be secured in laboratory exercises has been considered very desirable. It has seemed reasonable to suppose that it should help students to understand and appreciate the work in applied courses or to aid them to discover mistakes in their choice of training at a time when the error can be remedied. When a student has completed his curriculum it is easier for the young man who has had experience to find a suitable position than it is if he is inexperienced. In spite of these advantages, however, it is desirable that case studies be made to determine the facts in regard to the effects of farm practice requirements, both educationally and practically. Such an investigation is justified by the number of institutions that do not have practice requirements.
Chapter VI.-- Agricultural Students
There is much interest on the part of the public in higher education, but understanding and appreciation of what an institution has to offer, or what higher education really means, are rare. It is the duty, therefore, of every State-supported institution to make its aims, purposes, offerings, and facilities known to the public and to young men and women. Such informative activity should not be regarded as advertising or propaganda. It should be regarded rather as an explanation due to the people who support the institutions. They have a right to learn of the opportunities offered to young men and women by virtue of public taxation for institutional support. Acquainting prospective students with offerings in undergraduate agriculture is a part of this important duty. How it is done and an estimate of the effectiveness of the methods used is shown in Table 10.
While 45 institutions reported on methods used, only 26 gave an estimate of their effectiveness. It is clear that in the judgment of these institutions cooperation with Smith-Hughes teachers, with alumni, with extension workers, and with high-school principals, and special care in correspondence with prospective students lead in effectiveness. This is to be expected, since such contacts are personal in character. Smith-Hughes teachers of agriculture and county agents almost universally are agricultural alumni, and therefore they and alumni in other occupations are in the best position to enlighten and interest young men and women in college work.